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Information Technology and International Relations: Using On Line, Interactive Simulations to Transcend Time, Space, and Attitudes
Unformatted Document Text:  countries' perspective, using sources from the state they are simulating as well as historical news reports and academic, scholarly work. For example, a student taking the role of a Soviet decision maker looked for speeches by political leaders from the Soviet Union, articles written by Soviet journalists and scholars, and statements issued by the government of the USSR. These sources are available on the author’s Cuban Missile Crisis website http://www.scu.edu.crs. Students were also instructed to present the paper in an innovative manner, attempting to achieve a degree of empathy with the simulated state. For example, writing a state of the world address by a head of government, a briefing by a foreign minister, messages from an ambassador abroad, or a secret report on military preparedness by a security advisor can help students better adopt the role they are simulating and feel what it's like to be a decision maker in their simulated state. Heads of states wrote about the historical context of the crisis, their countries’ goals, and the dangers the crisis posed. Advisors wrote about their role in the government, their values, and the ideal outcome of the crisis from their institutional perspectives. After this preparation, students received a scenario presenting a listing of historical events immediately prior to the crisis. The events were written in language reflecting the ideology and values of each involved country. For example, the Cuban team members read:August 16, 1960: The first assassination plot by the United States against Fidel Castro is detected by Cuban intelligence when a box of Castro’s favorite cigars is found poisoned by a U. S. spy. The plan is one of several assassination plots against the Cuban leader devised by the United States government between 1960 and 1962.May 8, 1962: A multi-service United States military exercise designed to test contingency planning for Cuba begins. Another military exercise in the Caribbean is planned for sometime in the spring or summer. Soviet and Cuban sources conclude that the series of military exercises is additional evidence of United States intentions to invade Cuba. Soviet team members read: January 2, 1961: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev tells a gathering at the Cuban embassy in Moscow: “The most aggressive American monopolists are preparing a direct attack on Cuba. They are trying to present the case as though rocket bases of the Soviet Union are being set up or are already established in Cuba. This is foul slander.”May 29, 1962: A Soviet special envoy arrives in Cuba with a delegation to meet with Fidel Castro and his brother Raul, the Cuban Minister of Defense. Expressing their concern over the possibility of a new United States invasion of Cuba, the Soviet officials state that the Soviet Union is prepared to assist Cuba in fortifying its defenses, even to the extent of deploying nuclear missiles on Cuban soil. The American team read: June 13, 1961: General Maxwell Taylor submits a report on United States limited war programs following the Bay of Pigs invasion. Taylor calls for the creation of a new

Authors: Stover, William.
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countries' perspective, using sources from the state they are simulating as well as
historical news reports and academic, scholarly work. For example, a student taking the
role of a Soviet decision maker looked for speeches by political leaders from the Soviet
Union, articles written by Soviet journalists and scholars, and statements issued by the
government of the USSR. These sources are available on the author’s Cuban Missile
Crisis website http://www.scu.edu.crs.
Students were also instructed to present the paper in an innovative manner, attempting to
achieve a degree of empathy with the simulated state. For example, writing a state of the
world address by a head of government, a briefing by a foreign minister, messages from
an ambassador abroad, or a secret report on military preparedness by a security advisor
can help students better adopt the role they are simulating and feel what it's like to be a
decision maker in their simulated state. Heads of states wrote about the historical context
of the crisis, their countries’ goals, and the dangers the crisis posed. Advisors wrote
about their role in the government, their values, and the ideal outcome of the crisis from
their institutional perspectives.
After this preparation, students received a scenario presenting a listing of historical
events immediately prior to the crisis. The events were written in language reflecting the
ideology and values of each involved country. For example, the Cuban team members
read:
August 16, 1960: The first assassination plot by the United States against Fidel Castro is
detected by Cuban intelligence when a box of Castro’s favorite cigars is found poisoned
by a U. S. spy. The plan is one of several assassination plots against the Cuban leader
devised by the United States government between 1960 and 1962.
May 8, 1962: A multi-service United States military exercise designed to test
contingency planning for Cuba begins. Another military exercise in the Caribbean is
planned for sometime in the spring or summer. Soviet and Cuban sources conclude that
the series of military exercises is additional evidence of United States intentions to invade
Cuba.
Soviet team members read:
January 2, 1961: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev tells a gathering at the Cuban
embassy in Moscow: “The most aggressive American monopolists are preparing a direct
attack on Cuba. They are trying to present the case as though rocket bases of the Soviet
Union are being set up or are already established in Cuba. This is foul slander.”
May 29, 1962: A Soviet special envoy arrives in Cuba with a delegation to meet with
Fidel Castro and his brother Raul, the Cuban Minister of Defense. Expressing their
concern over the possibility of a new United States invasion of Cuba, the Soviet officials
state that the Soviet Union is prepared to assist Cuba in fortifying its defenses, even to the
extent of deploying nuclear missiles on Cuban soil.
The American team read:
June 13, 1961: General Maxwell Taylor submits a report on United States limited war
programs following the Bay of Pigs invasion. Taylor calls for the creation of a new


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