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Information Technology and International Relations: Using On Line, Interactive Simulations to Transcend Time, Space, and Attitudes
Unformatted Document Text:  program of action against Cuba, possibly employing the full range of political, military, economic, and psychological tactics. September 19, 1962: The United States Intelligence Board states that some intelligence indicates the possible ongoing deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba. However, it concluded that “the establishment on Cuban soil of Soviet nuclear striking forces which could be used against the United States would be incompatible with Soviet policy as we presently estimate it...(and the Soviets) would almost certainly estimate that this could not be done without provoking a dangerous United States reaction." The scenario followed historical events up to the launch of the United States U-2 “reconnaissance” or “spy” plane that discovered the missiles. Instead of photographing the missiles, however, the aircraft crashed in Cuba, and the pilot became a prisoner of Cuban authorities. This meant that the American team could not be certain that the missiles had been deployed in Cuba. It also provided a possible diversion for the United States, raising a possible necessity for recovering the pilot and aircraft, thus eclipsing the more pressing need for preventing missiles deployment. The pilot-prisoner also gave the Cubans (and potentially the Soviets) an immediate issue about which they could negotiate with the United States. The simulation is set in the fall of 1962, and all actual world events occurring immediately prior to October 11, 1962 are taken into account at the onset of play. However, once the simulation begins, activities which occurred after October 11, 1962 are no longer relevant. The teams are expected to enact successfully the foreign policy goals presented by the heads of state in their papers. Advisors deliberate the issues, making recommendations, but the heads of state have final authority for policy decisions. A simulation director (the instructor) serves as a referee, responsible for interpreting game rules, determining whether non-routine moves may be permitted, judging outcomes, sometimes introducing additional facts into the simulation, and generally assuring that the game runs smoothly. Students come to class on the first day of the simulation to submit their papers and obtain the scenario. The heads of state then meet with their advisors at a pre-arranged location during class time to discuss their strategy. The American team deliberated the following questions: 1. How should the United States respond to press reports dealing with the loss of this aircraft? 2. What efforts should the United States undertake to gain information about the pilot and aircraft? 3. To whom should we address our inquiries? 4. How soon can another U-2 flight be ready to verify or disprove the existence of Soviet offensive missiles in Cuba? 5. Are there other means to make that determination?

Authors: Stover, William.
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program of action against Cuba, possibly employing the full range of political, military,
economic, and psychological tactics.
September 19, 1962: The United States Intelligence Board states that some intelligence
indicates the possible ongoing deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba. However, it
concluded that “the establishment on Cuban soil of Soviet nuclear striking forces which
could be used against the United States would be incompatible with Soviet policy as we
presently estimate it...(and the Soviets) would almost certainly estimate that this could
not be done without provoking a dangerous United States reaction."
The scenario followed historical events up to the launch of the United States U-2
“reconnaissance” or “spy” plane that discovered the missiles. Instead of photographing
the missiles, however, the aircraft crashed in Cuba, and the pilot became a prisoner of
Cuban authorities. This meant that the American team could not be certain that the
missiles had been deployed in Cuba. It also provided a possible diversion for the United
States, raising a possible necessity for recovering the pilot and aircraft, thus eclipsing the
more pressing need for preventing missiles deployment. The pilot-prisoner also gave the
Cubans (and potentially the Soviets) an immediate issue about which they could negotiate
with the United States.
The simulation is set in the fall of 1962, and all actual world events occurring
immediately prior to October 11, 1962 are taken into account at the onset of play.
However, once the simulation begins, activities which occurred after October 11, 1962
are no longer relevant.
The teams are expected to enact successfully the foreign policy goals presented by the
heads of state in their papers. Advisors deliberate the issues, making recommendations,
but the heads of state have final authority for policy decisions. A simulation director (the
instructor) serves as a referee, responsible for interpreting game rules, determining
whether non-routine moves may be permitted, judging outcomes, sometimes introducing
additional facts into the simulation, and generally assuring that the game runs smoothly.
Students come to class on the first day of the simulation to submit their papers and obtain
the scenario. The heads of state then meet with their advisors at a pre-arranged location
during class time to discuss their strategy. The American team deliberated the following
questions:
1. How should the United States respond to press reports dealing with the loss of this
aircraft?
2. What efforts should the United States undertake to gain information about the pilot
and aircraft?
3. To whom should we address our inquiries?
4. How soon can another U-2 flight be ready to verify or disprove the existence of
Soviet offensive missiles in Cuba?
5. Are there other means to make that determination?


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