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The Game of Politics Simulation: An Exploratory Study
Unformatted Document Text:  riding a chairman would likely lead to retribution, however this rarely occurs. If the committee assigns it to a subcommittee, the subcommittee chairman could kill it. If placed on the agenda, lobbyists and other interested parties will testify. After hearing testimony, the subcommittee marks up the bill where amendments and/or substantive or slight wording changes can occur. After this, the subcommittee will vote and may kill it or recommend the bill to the full committee. If the full committee approves the subcommittee report, it can accept it as recommended, hear further testimony if desired, and engage in a further mark-up session. In the meanwhile, the media will cover the hearings and may either factually describe the bill or attempt to influence public opinion. Simultaneously, committee members, other members of Congress, the leadership in both congressional parties, and even the president or other officials may issue public statements to mold public opinion or even quietly plant their own “spin” with friendly media types. Affected interest groups, lobbyists, and citizens may also engage in grassroots efforts, additional lobbying, and contact favorable reporters to create public support for their respective positions. If the committee recommends the bill, it then goes to the powerful Rules Committee which can kill it or pass it to the House for a second reading. If so, it may stipulate an open rule that permits flexibility for the Speaker to determine the ground rules for the debate or a closed rule which can impose time limits and bar further amendments. If it fails to receive a majority vote in the Rules Committee, the bill is dead. If the bill passes a closed rule for the second reading and carries changes, time is given for inserting the changes and after a waiting period, it receives a third or final reading, If the bill fails to receive a majority it is dead, but if it passes, it goes to the Senate where the majority leader may refuse to assign it to a Standing Committee or refer it to a committee or where he knows it will not be placed on the agenda. If he does assign it to a relevant standing committee, then the committee has the same procedural options as occurs with the House Standing Committees. Unlike the House, however, if the Senate Standing Committee approves the bill, it does not go to a Rules Committee for further scrutiny, but goes directly to the floor for a second reading. Contrary to the House, the Senate permits unlimited debate and senators can engage in a filibuster

Authors: Kahn, Melvin. and Perez, Kathleen.
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riding a chairman would likely lead to retribution, however this rarely occurs.
If the committee assigns it to a subcommittee, the subcommittee chairman could kill it. If placed
on the agenda, lobbyists and other interested parties will testify. After hearing testimony, the
subcommittee marks up the bill where amendments and/or substantive or slight wording changes can
occur. After this, the subcommittee will vote and may kill it or recommend the bill to the full committee.
If the full committee approves the subcommittee report, it can accept it as recommended, hear further
testimony if desired, and engage in a further mark-up session. In the meanwhile, the media will cover the
hearings and may either factually describe the bill or attempt to influence public opinion. Simultaneously,
committee members, other members of Congress, the leadership in both congressional parties, and even
the president or other officials may issue public statements to mold public opinion or even quietly plant
their own “spin” with friendly media types. Affected interest groups, lobbyists, and citizens may also
engage in grassroots efforts, additional lobbying, and contact favorable reporters to create public support
for their respective positions.
If the committee recommends the bill, it then goes to the powerful Rules Committee which can
kill it or pass it to the House for a second reading. If so, it may stipulate an open rule that permits
flexibility for the Speaker to determine the ground rules for the debate or a closed rule which can impose
time limits and bar further amendments. If it fails to receive a majority vote in the Rules Committee, the
bill is dead. If the bill passes a closed rule for the second reading and carries changes, time is given for
inserting the changes and after a waiting period, it receives a third or final reading,
If the bill fails to receive a majority it is dead, but if it passes, it goes to the Senate where the
majority leader may refuse to assign it to a Standing Committee or refer it to a committee or where he
knows it will not be placed on the agenda. If he does assign it to a relevant standing committee, then the
committee has the same procedural options as occurs with the House Standing Committees. Unlike the
House, however, if the Senate Standing Committee approves the bill, it does not go to a Rules Committee
for further scrutiny, but goes directly to the floor for a second reading.
Contrary to the House, the Senate permits unlimited debate and senators can engage in a filibuster


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