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American Government Across Time, Space, and Location
Unformatted Document Text:  4 leaders. Internal Efficacy – the ability to influence government and politics (Gingsberg, Lowi, and Weir, 2003:12). Internal Efficacy scale -mean score on 7- item scale consisting of questions relating to students’ perceptions of efficacy. Government confidence: mean score on 6-item scale consisting of questions relating to students’ perceptions of government activity. Online: any learning experience of environment that relies upon the Internet as the primary delivery mode of communication and presentation (Fowles, 2000). Traditional Lecture: course delivery method is face-to-face and predominately lecture based (Fowles, 2000). Review of the Literature Political Education Patrick (1977) describes four dimensions of political education: political knowledge, intellectual skills, participation skills, and attitudes. Political knowledge includes factual information about government and politics, while intellectual skills include critical thinking and understanding of political phenomena. Conversely, participation skills place an emphasis on navigating the system and upholding the virtue of participation. Finally, political attitudes include feelings of efficacy and confidence in government (193-195). Research about the effects of political education is not difficult to locate, however the results present conflicting evidence about whether instruction designed to promote political knowledge, develop intellectual and participatory skills, or establish political attitudes actually makes a real difference. The problem with much of the research may be that it focuses too much

Authors: Bryant, Jane.
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4
leaders.
Internal Efficacy – the ability to influence government and politics (Gingsberg,
Lowi, and
Weir, 2003:12).
Internal Efficacy scale -mean score on 7- item scale consisting of questions
relating to
students’ perceptions of efficacy.
Government confidence: mean score on 6-item scale consisting of questions
relating to students’ perceptions of government activity.
Online: any learning experience of environment that relies upon the Internet as
the primary delivery mode of communication and presentation (Fowles,
2000).
Traditional Lecture: course delivery method is face-to-face and predominately
lecture based (Fowles, 2000).
Review of the Literature
Political Education
Patrick (1977) describes four dimensions of political education: political knowledge,
intellectual skills, participation skills, and attitudes. Political knowledge includes factual
information about government and politics, while intellectual skills include critical thinking and
understanding of political phenomena. Conversely, participation skills place an emphasis on
navigating the system and upholding the virtue of participation. Finally, political attitudes
include feelings of efficacy and confidence in government (193-195).
Research about the effects of political education is not difficult to locate, however the
results present conflicting evidence about whether instruction designed to promote political
knowledge, develop intellectual and participatory skills, or establish political attitudes actually
makes a real difference. The problem with much of the research may be that it focuses too much


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