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Promoting Political Participation through Experience-based Political Education
Unformatted Document Text:  Table 16 Internal Political Efficacy and Frequency of Political Dialogue in the Family Frequency of Dialogue Never Rarely Sometimes Always Total Agree 4% 2% 6% 11% 5% Somewhat agree 9 7 16 12 12 Somewhat disagree 26 34 40 32 34 Disagree 41 38 20 24 31 Don’t know what government and politics are doing. DK/NA 10 6 3 7 6 Total Percent 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% x 2 = 44.503 000 . < p , Note: N=562 Table 17 Legitimacy of Parliamentary System and the Frequency of Political Dialogue in the Family Frequency of Dialogue Never Rarely Sometimes Always Total Agree 10% 7% 7% 8% 7% Somewhat agree 21 23 32 25 26 Somewhat disagree 11 16 18 24 17 Disagree 14 7 7 20 10 Parliamentary system reflects voters' voice. DK/NA 45 49 37 24 40 Total Percent 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 2 = 34.728 005 . < p x Note: N=562 Our survey data and their analysis show that family functions to promote political development of students, and that at least dialogues in the family play an important role. The two items, internal political efficacy and views on legitimacy of parliamentary system, are correlated with their attitudes toward voting, as pointed out in the previous section. And our additional analysis in this section further proved that political dialogues in the family, through these correlated threes items, positively functions to promote the political participation of the youth. 4) School as an Agent of Political Socialization Japanese educational programs at every school, either national, public or private, from elementary to high schools, are based on the Manuals of Instruction decided by the Ministry of Education. These manuals stipulate the details of the content and hours for each item to be studied and only textbooks which have passed the Ministry’s screening can be used in schools. Political education falls under the “Civics” in Japan, and at elementary school, junior high school and high 17

Authors: Ishibashi, Shoichiro. and Chieko, Otsuru.
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Table 16 Internal Political Efficacy and Frequency of Political Dialogue in the Family
Frequency of Dialogue
Never
Rarely
Sometimes
Always
Total
Agree
4%
2%
6%
11%
5%
Somewhat agree
9
7
16
12
12
Somewhat disagree
26
34
40
32
34
Disagree
41
38
20
24
31
Don’t know what
government and
politics are doing.
DK/NA
10
6
3
7
6
Total
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
x
2
= 44.503
000
.
<
p
,
Note: N=562
Table 17 Legitimacy of Parliamentary System and the Frequency of Political Dialogue in the
Family
Frequency of Dialogue
Never
Rarely
Sometimes
Always
Total
Agree
10%
7%
7%
8%
7%
Somewhat agree
21
23
32
25
26
Somewhat disagree
11
16
18
24
17
Disagree
14
7
7
20
10
Parliamentary
system reflects
voters' voice.
DK/NA
45
49
37
24
40
Total
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
2
= 34.728
005
.
<
p
x
Note: N=562
Our survey data and their analysis show that family functions to promote political
development of students, and that at least dialogues in the family play an important role. The two
items, internal political efficacy and views on legitimacy of parliamentary system, are correlated
with their attitudes toward voting, as pointed out in the previous section. And our additional
analysis in this section further proved that political dialogues in the family, through these correlated
threes items, positively functions to promote the political participation of the youth.
4) School as an Agent of Political Socialization
Japanese educational programs at every school, either national, public or private, from
elementary to high schools, are based on the Manuals of Instruction decided by the Ministry of
Education. These manuals stipulate the details of the content and hours for each item to be studied
and only textbooks which have passed the Ministry’s screening can be used in schools. Political
education falls under the “Civics” in Japan, and at elementary school, junior high school and high
17


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