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Institutions of Knowledge and Internationalization of Education
Unformatted Document Text:  city-which is urban and centrally located, the upcoming private institutions and those which are being planned with public-private partnership in such city. Indian universities in late nineteenth century established on the public funds; internationalization leading to commercialization of education; Internationalization of curriculum- Indian universities and the foreign students, New institutions of knowledge with Public-Private Partnership. Indian Universities in the late nineteenth century Most of central universities in India are public institutions which were established during the colonial period or soon after Indian independence. 8 These universities were established either on London university model in second half of nineteenth century (the first generation universities in India) 9 or Oxbridge model in the early twentieth century (the second generation universities) 10 . There were other universities which were established in different parts of India after independence under the guidelines formulated by University Grants Commission. Internationalization leading to commercialization of education 8 J. P. Naik .1943. A Review of Modern Education in India (1813-1942); Pune; See also S. Nurullah and J. P. Naik. 1943. History of Education in India During the British Period Bombay; S. R. Dongerkery 1967. University Education in India, Manaktalas: Bombay. 9 The first generation universities in India were established in the second half of nineteenth century based on the London university model which was affiliating and examining body. The universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were the first three universities established with the help of colonial administrators. These were not teaching and research type universities and were not equipped to create men of scientific knowledge who could help in growth and development of nation. See H. Sharp ed., 1920. Selections from Educational Records; Superintendent Government Printing: Calcutta, part I; 1781-1839; See also Eric Ashby & Mary Anderson. 1966. Universities: British, Indian African-A Study in the Ecology of Higher Education; Weidenfeld and Nicolson: London. The establishment of London University in England in the early nineteenth century is clear from the report of Government of India- Bureau of Education. 1917. The Essentials of a University in a Great Centre of Population (Being a Reprint of Part II of the Final Report of the Royal Commission on University, Education in London), Superintendent Government Printing: Calcutta. 10 The second generation universities in India were established only in the first quarter of twentieth century that too when the educated Indian nationalists demanded for research and teaching type universities for the growth and economic development of the nation. There was constant demand for institutions which could create educated Indians like engineers, doctors, scientists and other professionals in the late colonial period, who could be the nation builders. This led to the demand of residential research and teaching universities to be established on the Oxbridge model (Oxford and Cambridge model): Banaras Hindu University and the Aligarh Muslim University were the first in this category. These universities were established with the support of the local community leaders and were meant to create men of knowledge. 3

Authors: Singh, Sneha.
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city-which is urban and centrally located, the upcoming private institutions and those
which are being planned with public-private partnership in such city. Indian universities
in late nineteenth century established on the public funds; internationalization leading to
commercialization of education; Internationalization of curriculum- Indian universities
and the foreign students, New institutions of knowledge with Public-Private Partnership.
Indian Universities in the late nineteenth century
Most of central universities in India are public institutions which were established during
the colonial period or soon after Indian independence.
These universities were
established either on London university model in second half of nineteenth century (the
first generation universities in India)
or Oxbridge model in the early twentieth century
(the second generation universities)
. There were other universities which were
established in different parts of India after independence under the guidelines formulated
by University Grants Commission.
Internationalization leading to commercialization of education
8
J. P. Naik .1943. A Review of Modern Education in India (1813-1942); Pune; See also S. Nurullah and J.
P. Naik. 1943. History of Education in India During the British Period Bombay; S. R. Dongerkery 1967.
University Education in India, Manaktalas: Bombay.
9
The first generation universities in India were established in the second half of nineteenth century based
on the London university model which was affiliating and examining body. The universities of Calcutta,
Bombay, and Madras were the first three universities established with the help of colonial administrators.
These were not teaching and research type universities and were not equipped to create men of scientific
knowledge who could help in growth and development of nation. See H. Sharp ed., 1920. Selections from
Educational Records; Superintendent Government Printing: Calcutta, part I; 1781-1839; See also Eric
Ashby & Mary Anderson. 1966. Universities: British, Indian African-A Study in the Ecology of Higher
Education; Weidenfeld and Nicolson: London. The establishment of London University in England in the
early nineteenth century is clear from the report of Government of India- Bureau of Education. 1917. The
Essentials of a University in a Great Centre of Population (Being a Reprint of Part II of the Final Report of
the Royal Commission on University, Education in London), Superintendent Government Printing:
Calcutta.
10
The second generation universities in India were established only in the first quarter of twentieth century
that too when the educated Indian nationalists demanded for research and teaching type universities for the
growth and economic development of the nation. There was constant demand for institutions which could
create educated Indians like engineers, doctors, scientists and other professionals in the late colonial period,
who could be the nation builders. This led to the demand of residential research and teaching universities to
be established on the Oxbridge model (Oxford and Cambridge model): Banaras Hindu University and the
Aligarh Muslim University were the first in this category. These universities were established with the
support of the local community leaders and were meant to create men of knowledge.
3


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