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Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda: Evaluating the Indexing and Propaganda Models on CNN/CNN En Espanol's Coverage of Fallujah
Unformatted Document Text:  Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? page page 1 1 Introduction Previous scholarship on media performance has proven in a variety of cases to serve as a useful predictive device and analytical tool for resulting news coverage (Boyd- Barrett, 2004; D. Chomsky, 2004; Friel and Falk, 2004; Hallin, 1984; Kumar, 2007; Solomon, 2005; McChesney, 2004). Notably, Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model (2002), as well as Bennett’s indexing hypothesis (1990), have proven to be particularly instructive in relation to U.S. news media coverage of important U.S. foreign policy issues and events (Jacobson et al., 2002; Kennis, 2003). However, these two models have only been used separately in past scholarly analyses and are firmly entrenched in distinct subfields of communication and political science studies. Methodologically and theoretically, the propaganda model (PM) and the indexing model (IM) accomplish different ends that provide a fuller, more nuanced explanation of news coverage. The key link between the two models is how they both address the importance of sourcing tendencies in determining resulting coverage. This paper argues that these two models are compatible and compliment one another in respect to their theoretical and methodological weaknesses and strengths. Building on previous studies that have evaluated the cohesiveness of these two models (Kennis 2006, 2007) this study examines the extent of their congruity and usefulness in explaining CNN’s and CNN en Español’s coverage of the invasion of Fallujah, Iraq, during several key time periods from 2003-2004. Description of the Indexing Model The indexing model postulates that the mainstream media “‘index’ the range of voices and viewpoints in both news and editorials according to the range of views

Authors: Kennis, Andrew.
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Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? 
Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? 
Previous scholarship on media performance has proven in a variety of cases to 
serve as a useful predictive device and analytical tool for resulting news coverage (Boyd-
Barrett, 2004; D. Chomsky, 2004; Friel and Falk, 2004; Hallin, 1984; Kumar, 2007; 
Solomon, 2005; McChesney, 2004). Notably, Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model 
(2002), as well as Bennett’s indexing hypothesis (1990), have proven to be particularly 
instructive in relation to U.S. news media coverage of important U.S. foreign policy 
issues and events (Jacobson et al., 2002; Kennis, 2003).  However, these two models 
have only been used separately in past scholarly analyses and are firmly entrenched in 
distinct subfields of communication and political science studies. Methodologically and 
theoretically, the propaganda model (PM) and the indexing model (IM) accomplish 
different ends that provide a fuller, more nuanced explanation of news coverage. The key 
link between the two models is how they both address the importance of sourcing 
tendencies in determining resulting coverage.
This paper argues that these two models are compatible and compliment one 
another in respect to their theoretical and methodological weaknesses and strengths. 
Building on previous studies that have evaluated the cohesiveness of these two models 
(Kennis 2006, 2007) this study examines the extent of their congruity and usefulness in 
explaining CNN’s and CNN en Español’s coverage of the invasion of Fallujah, Iraq, 
during several key time periods from 2003-2004. 
Description of the Indexing Model
The indexing model postulates that the mainstream media “‘index’ the range of 
voices and viewpoints in both news and editorials according to the range of views 

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