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Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda: Evaluating the Indexing and Propaganda Models on CNN/CNN En Espanol's Coverage of Fallujah
Unformatted Document Text:  Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? page page 2 2 expressed in mainstream government debate about a given topic (Bennett, 1990:106).” Jonathan Mermin (1999) has done some of the most recent and comprehensive work in terms of evaluating the IM and summarizes with this elucidation, “the spectrum of debate in the news, the IM asserts, is a function of the spectrum of debate in official Washington (5).” i The implications of indexing are important, ii as Bennett wrote, “Evidence supporting the indexing hypothesis would suggest that the news industry has ceded to government the tasks of policing itself and striking a democratic balance” (1990:106). iii Since the time Bennett first posited the “indexing hypothesis” and Mermin comprehensively tested it, there have been scores of indexing case studies supporting its main postulates, such as how criticism is limited and shaped by domestic officials (Alexseev & Bennett, 1995; Bennett, 1990; Bennett & Manheim, 1993; Dorman & Livingston, 1994; Eilders & Lüter, 2000; Nacos, 1990; Zaller & Chiu, 1996) and tends more towards a procedural variety, than a substantive one (Entman & Page, 1994; Hallin, 1986, 1994; Hertog, 2000; Mermin, 1996). iv Sourcing: the Key Link between Indexing and the Propaganda Model Sourcing is a key theoretical link between indexing and the propaganda model. In both models, sourcing tendencies are identified as a key factor for explaining the U.S. news media’s coverage patterns and weaknesses. In terms of the PM, the updated edition of the model (Herman and Chomsky, 2002) argued that this filter has significantly strengthened while alluding to past scholarly work done by one of the leading political economists of communications that buttressed this argument (McChesney, 2000). Indexing’s utilization of sourcing tendencies as an explanation of news coverage, however, is more elaborate and useful than what is offered by the PM. It captures the

Authors: Kennis, Andrew.
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Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? 
Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? 
expressed in mainstream government debate about a given topic (Bennett, 1990:106).” 
Jonathan Mermin (1999) has done some of the most recent and comprehensive work in 
terms of evaluating the IM and summarizes with this elucidation, “the spectrum of debate 
in the news, the IM asserts, is a function of the spectrum of debate in official Washington 
 The implications of indexing are important,
 as Bennett wrote, “Evidence 
supporting the indexing hypothesis would suggest that the news industry has ceded to 
government the tasks of policing itself and striking a democratic balance” (1990:106).
Since the time Bennett first posited the “indexing hypothesis” and Mermin 
comprehensively tested it, there have been scores of indexing case studies supporting its 
main postulates, such as how criticism is limited and shaped by domestic officials 
(Alexseev & Bennett, 1995; Bennett, 1990; Bennett & Manheim, 1993; Dorman & 
Livingston, 1994; Eilders & Lüter, 2000; Nacos, 1990; Zaller & Chiu, 1996) and tends 
more towards a procedural variety, than a substantive one (Entman & Page, 1994; Hallin, 
1986, 1994; Hertog, 2000; Mermin, 1996).
Sourcing: the Key Link between Indexing and the Propaganda Model 
Sourcing is a key theoretical link between indexing and the propaganda model. In 
both models, sourcing tendencies are identified as a key factor for explaining the U.S. 
news media’s coverage patterns and weaknesses. In terms of the PM, the updated edition 
of the model (Herman and Chomsky, 2002) argued that this filter has significantly 
strengthened while alluding to past scholarly work done by one of the leading political 
economists of communications that buttressed this argument (McChesney, 2000). 
Indexing’s utilization of sourcing tendencies as an explanation of news coverage, 
however, is more elaborate and useful than what is offered by the PM. It captures the 

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