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Identifying Electoral Fraud: A Novel Test and New Data From Nigeria
Unformatted Document Text:  5th pctl of simulated frequency with which last two digits are identical, minus empirical frequency 5 10 20 50 100 300 1000 −.2 −.1 0 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q Empirical frequency minus 95th pctl of simulated frequency with which distance between last and penultimate digit is one Number of wards in municipality (logged) 5 10 20 50 100 300 1000 −.4 −.3 −.2 −.1 0 .1 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q Point size is proportional to turnout Multiple columns 5th pctl of simulated frequency with which distance between last and penultimate digit is greater one, minus empirical frequency 5 10 20 50 100 300 1000 −.4 −.3 −.2 −.1 0 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q Figure 3: Last and p en ultimate di gits , Sw eden 2002 10

Authors: Beber, Bernd. and Scacco, Alexandra.
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5th pctl of simulated frequency with which last two digits
are identical, minus empirical frequency
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Empirical frequency minus 95th pctl of simulated frequency with
which distance between last and penultimate digit is one
Number of wards in municipality (logged)
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Point size is proportional to turnout
Multiple columns
5th pctl of simulated frequency with which distance between last
and penultimate digit is greater one, minus empirical frequency
5
10
20
50
100
300
1000
−.4
−.3
−.2
−.1
0
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Figure
3:
Last
and
p
en
ultimate
di
gits
,
Sw
eden
2002
10


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