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Gender Quotas and Political Ambition: Evidence From Germany
Unformatted Document Text:  7 It is important to note that these quotas also apply to inner-party offices. This means that in the precinct-level party organizations surveyed, the Greens require male and female co-chairs, the Social Democrats require that at least one of the top two officers is a woman, and the Christian Democrats require one of the top three posts to go to a woman, if one can be found after a concentrated search. The Christian Social Union and Free Democratic Party have no such requirements so any women who occupy leadership positions so that any women found in their leadership ranks have not been offered the position simply to fill a quota. German gender quotas are voluntary promises made by political parties, however, and there are no legal sanctions for non-compliance. Quota implementation varies across the German states (Davidson-Schmich 2006b) and the five states surveyed represent a range of political opportunity structures for female candidates. The northern city-states of Hamburg and Bremen are among the states where quotas are most consistently implemented, while the large southern Länder of Baden-Württemberg and Bayern have the lowest rates of quota implementation. Centrally-located Northrhein Westphalia has a mixed record. Because Hamburg and Bremen are so small, the universe of local party organizations was surveyed in these states. 7 In the larger states, a sample of localities was randomly selected from each region of the state. After a pretest had extremely skewed response rates along gender lines (90% of women but only 30% of men responded), care was taken not to portray the survey as one measuring gender and political ambition but rather as a survey of political ambition in 7 The exceptions were the Social Democratic and Christian Democratic party organizations in Hamburg. These parties were so large that only a sample of branch organizations was taken.

Authors: Davidson-Schmich, Louise.
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7
It is important to note that these quotas also apply to inner-party offices. This
means that in the precinct-level party organizations surveyed, the Greens require male
and female co-chairs, the Social Democrats require that at least one of the top two
officers is a woman, and the Christian Democrats require one of the top three posts to go
to a woman, if one can be found after a concentrated search. The Christian Social Union
and Free Democratic Party have no such requirements so any women who occupy
leadership positions so that any women found in their leadership ranks have not been
offered the position simply to fill a quota.
German gender quotas are voluntary promises made by political parties, however,
and there are no legal sanctions for non-compliance. Quota implementation varies across
the German states (Davidson-Schmich 2006b) and the five states surveyed represent a
range of political opportunity structures for female candidates. The northern city-states of
Hamburg and Bremen are among the states where quotas are most consistently
implemented, while the large southern Länder of Baden-Württemberg and Bayern have
the lowest rates of quota implementation. Centrally-located Northrhein Westphalia has a
mixed record. Because Hamburg and Bremen are so small, the universe of local party
organizations was surveyed in these states.
7
In the larger states, a sample of localities was
randomly selected from each region of the state.
After a pretest had extremely skewed response rates along gender lines (90% of
women but only 30% of men responded), care was taken not to portray the survey as one
measuring gender and political ambition but rather as a survey of political ambition in
7
The exceptions were the Social Democratic and Christian Democratic party organizations in Hamburg.
These parties were so large that only a sample of branch organizations was taken.


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