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A Comparative Analysis of Integration Efforts in Europe and South America
Unformatted Document Text:  Brian Hardt further cooperation which effectively ended the Franco-German center. This exemplifies how regional integration was no longer used for purely economic motives. European integration was promoted through the possibility of a lasting peace. The focal point of integration completely shifted to a regional basis. (Ginsberg, 2007)(McCormick, 1999) This is not to say that the shift was smooth and without problems. On the contrary, France, in particular, was not excited about abandoning the concept of a Franco-German foundation. France vehemently opposed the expansion of the EEC to include Britain in the 1960’s. France rejected Britain inclusion for several reasons. One reason was due to past grudges held by French President Charles DeGaulle. DeGaulle was still anger over his perceived mistreatment during the Allied summits of WWII because he was not treated as an equal to Britain, the US and Russia. DeGaulle also worried about American influence due to the close US-UK relations. More importantly, France opposed Britain’s inclusion because DeGaulle believed that Britain would immediately challenge the strong French influence over the direction of the EEC. DeGaulle vetoed British entrance in 1963 and 1967. French discordance ultimately resulted in the “Empty Chair” crisis of 1965-66. Britain was eventually allowed to enter into the Community in 1969 after DeGaulle stepped down from the French presidency. A true regional goal was now set after the desertion of all Franco-German focus. (Ginsberg, 2007)(McCormick, 1999) The PICE is the foundation that would later develop into the Mercosur trade bloc. The ability to negotiate large trade agreements, with larger objectives in the future, was produced by the breakdown of the hostile diplomatic pattern with the signing of the Tripartite Agreement in 1979. As with the case of the ECSC, the PICE sought to abolish the traditional hostilities between countries that often vied for regional influence. As mentioned before, the PICE was met with very moderate success. Again, it was not the economic gains or possible spillover effects that led to the development of the Treaty of Asunción but the actual act of cooperation that proved deeper integration and more intimate diplomacy were possible. With the inclusion of Paraguay and Uruguay, it appeared as if the South American integration process had moved beyond the emphasis of the Argentine-Brazil relation. Unfortunately, actions have not followed logic as this two state axis has been one of the main obstacles to deeper integration within the Mercosur bloc (Malamud, 2005). 17

Authors: Hardt, Brian.
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Brian Hardt
further cooperation which effectively ended the Franco-German center. This exemplifies how regional
integration was no longer used for purely economic motives. European integration was promoted through the
possibility of a lasting peace. The focal point of integration completely shifted to a regional basis. (Ginsberg,
2007)(McCormick, 1999)
This is not to say that the shift was smooth and without problems. On the contrary, France, in particular,
was not excited about abandoning the concept of a Franco-German foundation. France vehemently opposed the
expansion of the EEC to include Britain in the 1960’s. France rejected Britain inclusion for several reasons. One
reason was due to past grudges held by French President Charles DeGaulle. DeGaulle was still anger over his
perceived mistreatment during the Allied summits of WWII because he was not treated as an equal to Britain, the
US and Russia. DeGaulle also worried about American influence due to the close US-UK relations. More
importantly, France opposed Britain’s inclusion because DeGaulle believed that Britain would immediately
challenge the strong French influence over the direction of the EEC. DeGaulle vetoed British entrance in 1963
and 1967. French discordance ultimately resulted in the “Empty Chair” crisis of 1965-66. Britain was eventually
allowed to enter into the Community in 1969 after DeGaulle stepped down from the French presidency. A true
regional goal was now set after the desertion of all Franco-German focus. (Ginsberg, 2007)(McCormick, 1999)
The PICE is the foundation that would later develop into the Mercosur trade bloc. The ability to
negotiate large trade agreements, with larger objectives in the future, was produced by the breakdown of the
hostile diplomatic pattern with the signing of the Tripartite Agreement in 1979. As with the case of the ECSC,
the PICE sought to abolish the traditional hostilities between countries that often vied for regional influence. As
mentioned before, the PICE was met with very moderate success. Again, it was not the economic gains or
possible spillover effects that led to the development of the Treaty of Asunción but the actual act of cooperation
that proved deeper integration and more intimate diplomacy were possible.
With the inclusion of Paraguay and Uruguay, it appeared as if the South American integration process had
moved beyond the emphasis of the Argentine-Brazil relation. Unfortunately, actions have not followed logic as
this two state axis has been one of the main obstacles to deeper integration within the Mercosur bloc (Malamud,
2005).
17


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