All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Ideas as Building Blocks of a Path: Islamic Challenge to the pro-Western Turkish Foreign Policy, 1996-1997
Unformatted Document Text:  alternative path to the existing pro-Western orientation included policies such as developing closer relations with the Islamic world, especially with Libya and Iran, and setting up an Islamic Union including Islamic United Nations and Islamic Defense Organization, a common Islamic currency (İslam dinarı), and an Islamic Common Market (see Sayarı 1996 and 1997; Kirişçi 1997; Öniş 1997; Kamrava 1998, 290; Bozdağlıoğlu 2003, 130-139; Hale 2003, 219; Robins 2003, 146; Doğan 2005, 424; Tank 2005, 9; Toprak 2005, 182). 9 Given the past pro-Western trajectory of Turkish foreign policy, these policy objectives were rather radical. Although these projects sounded unrealistic for many circles, circumventing his pro-Western Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller, Prime Minister Erbakan took several steps which proved his sincerity about diverting the foreign policy from its conventional pro- Western path towards pan-Islamism. For instance, Prime Minister Erbakan’s first foreign visit was to Iran, which resulted in signing a major natural gas agreement with Iran amid reports on Iranian support to separatist Kurdish organization PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party, Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan). 10 In the following period, Erbakan visited other Islamic countries in Asia (e.g. Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan) and Africa (e.g. Libya Egypt and Nigeria). Pro-Islamic Prime Minister also proposed setting up certain pan- Islamic organizations such as M-8, “Developing Muslim States”, 11 as an alternative to D- 7, and ‘the Economic Cooperation Organization’ among Muslim countries (Toprak 2005, 9 Strengthening relations with the Islamic world was also indicated in the party program and election declarations (e.g. election declaration for the December 1994 Elections). 10 The PKK was established in 1978. Its main aim has been to establish an independent Kurdish state in the south eastern part of Turkey. In the early 1980s, an armed conflict emerged between the security forces and the PKK. The intensity of the armed conflict increased in the mid-1990s. From 1984 to 1999, the number of people killed is estimated to be around 30,000 (half of them PKK members, one-fourth civilians and one-fourth security members). Although its intensity has declined dramatically since the capture of PKK leader Öcalan by Turkish security forces in 1999 in Kenya, armed conflicts resumed in the spring of 2005. 11 M refers to the following Muslim countries: Turkey, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria and Pakistan. 24

Authors: Sarigil, Zeki.
first   previous   Page 24 of 37   next   last



background image
alternative path to the existing pro-Western orientation included policies such as
developing closer relations with the Islamic world, especially with Libya and Iran, and
setting up an Islamic Union including Islamic United Nations and Islamic Defense
Organization, a common Islamic currency (İslam dinarı), and an Islamic Common
Market (see Sayarı 1996 and 1997; Kirişçi 1997; Öniş 1997; Kamrava 1998, 290;
Bozdağlıoğlu 2003, 130-139; Hale 2003, 219; Robins 2003, 146; Doğan 2005, 424; Tank
2005, 9; Toprak 2005, 182).
Given the past pro-Western trajectory of Turkish foreign
policy, these policy objectives were rather radical.
Although these projects sounded unrealistic for many circles, circumventing his
pro-Western Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller, Prime Minister Erbakan took several steps
which proved his sincerity about diverting the foreign policy from its conventional pro-
Western path towards pan-Islamism. For instance, Prime Minister Erbakan’s first foreign
visit was to Iran, which resulted in signing a major natural gas agreement with Iran amid
reports on Iranian support to separatist Kurdish organization PKK (Kurdistan Workers
Party, Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan).
In the following period, Erbakan visited other
Islamic countries in Asia (e.g. Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan) and Africa (e.g. Libya
Egypt and Nigeria). Pro-Islamic Prime Minister also proposed setting up certain pan-
Islamic organizations such as M-8, “Developing Muslim States”,
as an alternative to D-
7, and ‘the Economic Cooperation Organization’ among Muslim countries (Toprak 2005,
9
Strengthening relations with the Islamic world was also indicated in the party program and election
declarations (e.g. election declaration for the December 1994 Elections).
10
The PKK was established in 1978. Its main aim has been to establish an independent Kurdish state in the
south eastern part of Turkey. In the early 1980s, an armed conflict emerged between the security forces and
the PKK. The intensity of the armed conflict increased in the mid-1990s. From 1984 to 1999, the number
of people killed is estimated to be around 30,000 (half of them PKK members, one-fourth civilians and
one-fourth security members). Although its intensity has declined dramatically since the capture of PKK
leader Öcalan by Turkish security forces in 1999 in Kenya, armed conflicts resumed in the spring of 2005.
11
M refers to the following Muslim countries: Turkey, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia,
Nigeria and Pakistan.
24


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 24 of 37   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.