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Economic Development and Semi-Democracies: The Relationship between Economic Development and Political Regimes in Malaysia and Singapore, 1960-2004
Unformatted Document Text:  20 Descriptive Statistics Figure 1.1 and 2.1 indicate the general trend of Malaysia and Singapore’s political regimes from 1960-2004. Generally, both Malaysia and Singapore are not quite democratic countries if we compare them with other advanced countries. According to [Figure 1.1 and 2.1] figure 1.1 and 2.1, Malaysia and Singapore’s political regimes are stable, nonetheless. There is not any movement in Malaysia and Singapore’s political regimes. In Malaysia, there was a movement toward more democratic in 1970s, but then it moved to more autocratic regime in 1994 (during Mahathir administration). The stability of political regimes reflects that the incumbents (UMNO and PAP) have firmly governed the countries so that there seems to be no powerful opposition and threat to destabilize the regimes. Neither have the incumbents democratized the countries, nor have they made the countries more autocratic or oppressive. It can also imply that people have been satisfied with the regimes’ economic performance. On the other hand, people’s participation has been systematically limited by the governments. In the name of development ideology, PAP has successfully indoctrinated citizens to concentrate solely on economic development and prosperity while they should leave politics with the party and the administration (Khong 1995). Tilly (2005) argued that in these states, people are systematically restrained to participate in public politics so long so that civil society groups are weakened and have no incentive to create public participation.

Authors: Laiprakobsup, Thanapan.
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20
Descriptive Statistics
Figure 1.1 and 2.1 indicate the general trend of Malaysia and Singapore’s
political regimes from 1960-2004. Generally, both Malaysia and Singapore are not quite
democratic countries if we compare them with other advanced countries. According to
[Figure 1.1 and 2.1]
figure 1.1 and 2.1, Malaysia and Singapore’s political regimes are stable, nonetheless.
There is not any movement in Malaysia and Singapore’s political regimes. In Malaysia,
there was a movement toward more democratic in 1970s, but then it moved to more
autocratic regime in 1994 (during Mahathir administration). The stability of political
regimes reflects that the incumbents (UMNO and PAP) have firmly governed the
countries so that there seems to be no powerful opposition and threat to destabilize the
regimes. Neither have the incumbents democratized the countries, nor have they made
the countries more autocratic or oppressive. It can also imply that people have been
satisfied with the regimes’ economic performance. On the other hand, people’s
participation has been systematically limited by the governments. In the name of
development ideology, PAP has successfully indoctrinated citizens to concentrate solely
on economic development and prosperity while they should leave politics with the party
and the administration (Khong 1995). Tilly (2005) argued that in these states, people
are systematically restrained to participate in public politics so long so that civil society
groups are weakened and have no incentive to create public participation.


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