All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Can Gestures of Goodwill from the State Condition Attitudes in Post-Authoritarian Democracies?: A Field Experiment
Unformatted Document Text:  11 For both models I present specifications with robust standard errors in order to account for possible underestimated standard errors (Gelman and Hill 2007). Because survey participants were not selected at random from the state’s population—but rather selected from neighborhoods that themselves were selected at random from a list of all low-income neighborhoods in the state—the existence of neighborhood homogeneity might produce underestimated standard errors because individuals in the Aurora neighborhood in Mexicali will tend to be more alike individuals in the neighborhood than individuals in the Lomitas neighborhood in Ensenada. Randomly chosen respondents in a neighborhood share the same physical environment, they are more likely to have similar economic activities (employees of a local manufacturing plant, work in the fishing industry, etc), are exposed to the same neighborhood problems (crime levels, poorly kept schools and public areas, unpaved streets, etc), and tend to be more homogeneous in general socioeconomic terms. Therefore, it is within reason to expect that their attitudes will have a tendency to be more alike than those of other neighborhoods. In econometric terms, this poses a problem because the assumption of independent observations cannot be guaranteed to be true for all observations (Gelman and Hill 2007). The reader can note that coefficients in both the OLS specification and the OLS specification with standard errors closely mirror each other thus dispelling possible issues of model misspecification. [Table 2 and 3 about here] The results in Table 2 and 3 show seemingly contradictory findings. While individuals who received the letter tended to lower their feeling of efficacy, and they miss if all their neighbors moved away (on a 5 point scale); and political knowledge is on a three point scale raging from not knowing any campaign slogan to knowing two.

Authors: Nishikawa, Katsuo.
first   previous   Page 11 of 21   next   last



background image
11
For both models I present specifications with robust standard errors in order to
account for possible underestimated standard errors (Gelman and Hill 2007). Because
survey participants were not selected at random from the state’s population—but rather
selected from neighborhoods that themselves were selected at random from a list of all
low-income neighborhoods in the state—the existence of neighborhood homogeneity
might produce underestimated standard errors because individuals in the Aurora
neighborhood in Mexicali will tend to be more alike individuals in the neighborhood than
individuals in the Lomitas neighborhood in Ensenada. Randomly chosen respondents in
a neighborhood share the same physical environment, they are more likely to have similar
economic activities (employees of a local manufacturing plant, work in the fishing
industry, etc), are exposed to the same neighborhood problems (crime levels, poorly kept
schools and public areas, unpaved streets, etc), and tend to be more homogeneous in
general socioeconomic terms. Therefore, it is within reason to expect that their attitudes
will have a tendency to be more alike than those of other neighborhoods. In econometric
terms, this poses a problem because the assumption of independent observations cannot
be guaranteed to be true for all observations (Gelman and Hill 2007). The reader can
note that coefficients in both the OLS specification and the OLS specification with
standard errors closely mirror each other thus dispelling possible issues of model
misspecification.
[Table 2 and 3 about here]
The results in Table 2 and 3 show seemingly contradictory findings. While
individuals who received the letter tended to lower their feeling of efficacy, and

they miss if all their neighbors moved away (on a 5 point scale); and political knowledge is on a three point
scale raging from not knowing any campaign slogan to knowing two.


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 11 of 21   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.