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Economic Inequality in the ‘Democratic’ Nepal: Dimensions and Implications
Unformatted Document Text:  44 Hills (2004 NRS) Mountains** Terai** Hills (2004 NRS) Mountains** Terai** Household consumption expenditures 105,627 0.46 0.54 150,431 0.36 0.68 Unadjusted household income 79,091 0.34 0.54 106,572 0.32 0.57 House Rental 6,274 0.09 0.28 5,097 0.10 0.48 Employment 24,376 0.52 0.67 44,861 0.27 0.48 Agriculture 4,115 0.82 1.77 3,076 1.08 1.57 Business 26,917 0.12 0.30 31,818 0.17 0.50 Remittance 9,455 0.23 0.41 12,523 0.63 0.93 Home and in-kind production 3,032 1.41 1.68 3,489 1.45 1.02 Adjusted household income 128,360 0.40 0.52 182,018 0.34 0.62 Household Wealth 1,209,752 0.18 0.35 1,261,516 0.33 0.58 Real estate and hosues 1,071,819 0.18 0.37 1,078,053 0.37 0.62 Business 51,383 0.18 0.20 99,137 0.07 0.54 Other assets, equipmments, and property 86,488 0.18 0.23 104,010 0.26 0.51 1996 Variable Table 6 Average Expenditure, Income, and Property for Ecological Belts* 2004 Note: * Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets. ** Values are relative to those of the Hills belt Variable HCH MCH LCH Newar Janjati Muslim Other 1996 Household consumption expenditures 0.591 0.506 0.481 0.583 0.604 0.422 0.518 Unadjusted household income 0.602 0.465 0.472 0.586 0.666 0.407 0.482 Adjusted household income 0.593 0.479 0.461 0.557 0.631 0.387 0.495 Household Wealth 0.748 0.584 0.730 0.743 0.765 0.643 0.695 2004 Household consumption expenditures 0.566 0.486 0.499 0.593 0.564 0.468 0.526 Unadjusted household income 0.622 0.524 0.455 0.697 0.553 0.386 0.567 Adjusted household income 0.582 0.479 0.477 0.650 0.551 0.430 0.524 Household Wealth 0.674 0.661 0.654 0.637 0.704 0.582 0.758 Table 7 Gini Coefficients for Different Caste and Ethnicities Note: Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets Urban Rural Urban Rural Household consumption expenditures 0.564 0.492 0.559 0.523 Unadjusted household income 0.564 0.486 0.626 0.503 Adjusted household income 0.573 0.472 0.594 0.508 Household Wealth 0.706 0.687 0.683 0.629 Variable Table 8 Gini Coefficients for Urban and Rural Areas Note: Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets 2004 1996

Authors: Wagle, Udaya.
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44
Hills
(2004 NRS) Mountains** Terai**
Hills
(2004 NRS) Mountains** Terai**
Household consumption expenditures
105,627
0.46
0.54
150,431
0.36
0.68
Unadjusted household income
79,091
0.34
0.54
106,572
0.32
0.57
House Rental
6,274
0.09
0.28
5,097
0.10
0.48
Employment
24,376
0.52
0.67
44,861
0.27
0.48
Agriculture
4,115
0.82
1.77
3,076
1.08
1.57
Business
26,917
0.12
0.30
31,818
0.17
0.50
Remittance
9,455
0.23
0.41
12,523
0.63
0.93
Home and in-kind production
3,032
1.41
1.68
3,489
1.45
1.02
Adjusted household income
128,360
0.40
0.52
182,018
0.34
0.62
Household Wealth
1,209,752
0.18
0.35
1,261,516
0.33
0.58
Real estate and hosues
1,071,819
0.18
0.37
1,078,053
0.37
0.62
Business
51,383
0.18
0.20
99,137
0.07
0.54
Other assets, equipmments, and property
86,488
0.18
0.23
104,010
0.26
0.51
1996
Variable
Table 6
Average Expenditure, Income, and Property for Ecological Belts*
2004
Note: * Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets.
** Values are relative to those of the Hills belt

Variable
HCH
MCH
LCH
Newar
Janjati
Muslim
Other
1996
Household consumption expenditures
0.591
0.506
0.481
0.583
0.604
0.422
0.518
Unadjusted household income
0.602
0.465
0.472
0.586
0.666
0.407
0.482
Adjusted household income
0.593
0.479
0.461
0.557
0.631
0.387
0.495
Household Wealth
0.748
0.584
0.730
0.743
0.765
0.643
0.695
2004
Household consumption expenditures
0.566
0.486
0.499
0.593
0.564
0.468
0.526
Unadjusted household income
0.622
0.524
0.455
0.697
0.553
0.386
0.567
Adjusted household income
0.582
0.479
0.477
0.650
0.551
0.430
0.524
Household Wealth
0.674
0.661
0.654
0.637
0.704
0.582
0.758
Table 7
Gini Coefficients for Different Caste and Ethnicities
Note: Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets
Urban
Rural
Urban
Rural
Household consumption expenditures
0.564
0.492
0.559
0.523
Unadjusted household income
0.564
0.486
0.626
0.503
Adjusted household income
0.573
0.472
0.594
0.508
Household Wealth
0.706
0.687
0.683
0.629
Variable
Table 8
Gini Coefficients for Urban and Rural Areas
Note: Estimates are bassed on all non-negative expenditures, incomes, or assets
2004
1996


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