All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Healthy Investment: Social Stability Risk and Public Health Expenditures in Autocracies
Unformatted Document Text:  through extra-institutionalized means. In order to measure it, I examine the two dimensions of dissatisfaction and mobilization. Dissatisfaction focuses on the degree of discontent and unhappiness among the population. It is one of the most important factors that lead to social disturbance and protest against the incumbent. Thus, dissatisfaction shows the extent to which the citizenry is willing to engage in activities that endanger stability and the incumbents’ monopoly on political power. Due to its sensitive nature, data on dissatisfaction is extremely hard to find in authoritarian regimes. Moreover, even though survey data on the public’s satisfaction of the government is available for some countries, it is not very meaningful to compare data based on such cross-regime surveys, because respondents in authoritarian countries tend to hide dissatisfaction while those in democratic countries usually do not. Thus, I choose overall unemployment rate provided in World Development Indicators 3 as an indicator of dissatisfaction. Using unemployment rate has two merits. First of all, unemployment is objective, which largely frees my analysis from bias due to inaccurate data. Moreover, unemployment rate is readily available, which helps me to maximize the number of observations. The theoretical rationale behind my measurement is also very straightforward: Countries with a high employment rate typically have very poor economic performances, which jeopardize living standards and displease the population, making the opportunity cost of resistance, protest, and even revolution lower, hence encouraging social instability. However, dissatisfaction is necessary but not sufficient. It alone does not lead to deterioration in social stability. Rather, mobilization is another necessary condition. It shows how capable the public is to express dissatisfaction through extra-institutionalized ways. In order to measure mobilization, I look at to what extent people could access information and to what extent people are connected with each other. For information, I use the number of Internet users per thousand people as an indicator. For connection, I use the number of mobile phone users per thousand people. Because both information and connection are very important in order for the public to get mobilized, I use the mean of Internet users and mobile phone users as an indicator of mobilization. Since social stability risk is influenced both by dissatisfaction and mobilization, I use their means as my social 3 Unless otherwise specified, all data used in this research come from the World Development Indicators dataset. 12

Authors: Yu, Bin.
first   previous   Page 12 of 26   next   last



background image
through extra-institutionalized means. In order to measure it, I examine the two
dimensions of dissatisfaction and mobilization. Dissatisfaction focuses on the degree of
discontent and unhappiness among the population. It is one of the most important factors
that lead to social disturbance and protest against the incumbent. Thus, dissatisfaction
shows the extent to which the citizenry is willing to engage in activities that endanger
stability and the incumbents’ monopoly on political power. Due to its sensitive nature,
data on dissatisfaction is extremely hard to find in authoritarian regimes. Moreover, even
though survey data on the public’s satisfaction of the government is available for some
countries, it is not very meaningful to compare data based on such cross-regime surveys,
because respondents in authoritarian countries tend to hide dissatisfaction while those in
democratic countries usually do not. Thus, I choose overall unemployment rate provided
in World Development Indicators
as an indicator of dissatisfaction. Using unemployment
rate has two merits. First of all, unemployment is objective, which largely frees my
analysis from bias due to inaccurate data. Moreover, unemployment rate is readily
available, which helps me to maximize the number of observations. The theoretical
rationale behind my measurement is also very straightforward: Countries with a high
employment rate typically have very poor economic performances, which jeopardize
living standards and displease the population, making the opportunity cost of resistance,
protest, and even revolution lower, hence encouraging social instability. However,
dissatisfaction is necessary but not sufficient. It alone does not lead to deterioration in
social stability. Rather, mobilization is another necessary condition. It shows how capable
the public is to express dissatisfaction through extra-institutionalized ways. In order to
measure mobilization, I look at to what extent people could access information and to
what extent people are connected with each other. For information, I use the number of
Internet users per thousand people as an indicator. For connection, I use the number of
mobile phone users per thousand people. Because both information and connection are
very important in order for the public to get mobilized, I use the mean of Internet users
and mobile phone users as an indicator of mobilization. Since social stability risk is
influenced both by dissatisfaction and mobilization, I use their means as my social
3
Unless otherwise specified, all data used in this research come from the World Development Indicators
dataset.
12


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 12 of 26   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.