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IBSA, International Relations Theories, and Changes in the Global Architecture
Unformatted Document Text:  Vikrum Sequeira 5 Midwest Conference Working Paper: IBSA ententes, especially at the level of the United Nations, to constrain US power. It also consists of strengthening economic ties between middle powers though sector collaboration. 9 While “soft balancing” is perhaps the ultimate aim of the IBSA members, the IBSA Declaration does not paint the First World as an adversary. IBSA’s Declaration clearly states that the group is “a trilateral, developmental initiative between India, Brazil and South Africa to promote South-South cooperation and exchange.” 10 It is useful to compare the philosophy of IBSA with the Non-Aligned Movement. After achieving independence, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wrote to his ambassadors in Washington and Moscow that India should stay out of entanglements as much as it could: “[India should be] determined to keep away from the power blocs or groups, aligned against one another, which have led in the past to world wars and which might again lead to disasters on an even vaster scale. [With alignment], foreign relations went out of one’s hands into the charge of somebody else, to that extant and in that measure then that country was not independent.” 11 The Non-Aligned Movement stressed South-South cooperation but it also emphasized independence from the United States and the Soviet Union. The IBSA Dialogue forum does highlight South-South cooperation but does not paint the First World as adversarial. The IBSA members want to work for the developing world, but not against the developed world. The distinction is fine but crucial. 9 Daniel Flemes, “Emerging Middle Powers’ Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum,” German Institute of Global and Area Studies: Working Paper 57, August 2007, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1007692. 10 IBSA, “About IBSA,” http://www.ibsa-trilateral.org/about_us.html. 11 KC. Arora, Imperialism and the Non-Aligned Movement (New Delhi: Sanchar Publishing House, 1998), p. 22.

Authors: Sequeira, Vikrum.
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background image
Vikrum Sequeira
5
Midwest Conference Working Paper: IBSA
ententes, especially at the level of the United Nations, to constrain US
power. It also consists of strengthening economic ties between middle
powers though sector collaboration.
9


While “soft balancing” is perhaps the ultimate aim of the IBSA members, the
IBSA Declaration does not paint the First World as an adversary. IBSA’s Declaration
clearly states that the group is “a trilateral, developmental initiative between India, Brazil
and South Africa to promote South-South cooperation and exchange.”
10
It is useful to compare the philosophy of IBSA with the Non-Aligned Movement.
After achieving independence, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wrote to his
ambassadors in Washington and Moscow that India should stay out of entanglements as
much as it could: “[India should be] determined to keep away from the power blocs or
groups, aligned against one another, which have led in the past to world wars and which
might again lead to disasters on an even vaster scale. [With alignment], foreign relations
went out of one’s hands into the charge of somebody else, to that extant and in that
measure then that country was not independent.”
11
The Non-Aligned Movement stressed South-South cooperation but it also
emphasized independence from the United States and the Soviet Union. The IBSA
Dialogue forum does highlight South-South cooperation but does not paint the First
World as adversarial. The IBSA members want to work for the developing world, but not
against the developed world. The distinction is fine but crucial.
9
Daniel Flemes, “Emerging Middle Powers’ Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA
Dialogue Forum,” German Institute of Global and Area Studies: Working Paper 57, August 2007,
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1007692.
10
IBSA, “About IBSA,” http://www.ibsa-trilateral.org/about_us.html.
11
KC. Arora, Imperialism and the Non-Aligned Movement (New Delhi: Sanchar Publishing House, 1998),
p. 22.


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