All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Law and Policy in Brazil: Protecting the Rainforest and Enhancing Communities
Unformatted Document Text:  perceived. Deforestation was acknowledged as one of these threats. In Brazil, deforestation rates are very high; statistics say that up to 20 percent of the rainforest’s original mass is now deforested. 59 ” According to Clearly, a History Professor, the main causes of deforestation are ranching, agriculture, timber extraction and urban expansion. 60 Brazilian scientists list “public politics (environmental and economic), institutional (fragility), agrotechnology, and socio economic (i.e.: population, income, food demand), that intersected and acted synergistically in the deforestation of the Amazon, as the main cause for deforestation. 61 ” The Amazon is crucial for water cycling that generates rainfall for its region and the surrounding area, carbon sequestering by holding and absorbing carbon dioxide and therefore slowing the global warming, and rich biodiversity. 62 Also, it is rich in biodiversity and natural resources such as timber, aluminum, copper, tin, nickel, iron, manganese, natural gas and gold. 63 Gold mining, performed by Garimpeiros (miners), has not been considered a matter of deep concern in terms of sustainable development from an environmental protection perspective, although it has caused much havoc to Brazil’s first peoples population. Interestingly, Clearly found that the decrease in gold mining has led to an increase in deforestation. 64 On the other hand, timber extraction by itself is one of the main causes of deforestation, and many loggers violate the rights of Brazil’s first peoples peoples as well as land property owners. 65 The consequences of habitat loss are “practical and ecological, threatening economic, agricultural, medical, moral, and aesthetic interests and, ultimately, the continued viability of life on earth.” 66 Scott Wallace, author of National Geographic’s article “Lat of the Amazon,” also acknowledges the trees capacity to absorb carbon dioxide and further argue that deforestation contributes to global warming. 67 Global warming issues began to be discussed in the International Community forums and during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Developing countries were suspicious as developed countries proposed the setting of a global environmental protection agenda. 68 North-South tensions were settled with the introduction of the concept of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR). Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration defines CBDR, and Article 4 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a common used provision incorporated in most MEAs (Multilateral Environment Agreements) 69 which states that “The extent to which developing countries Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed countries Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.” The influence of international renowned conferences and campaigns boosted national governments efforts to take action to protect their environments. In Brazil, President Collor launched Operacão Amazonia (Amazonia Operation) prior to the 1992 Earth Summit Conference. In 1997, in line with the Forest for 10

Authors: da Fonseca, Joao. and Vogel, Karen.
first   previous   Page 10 of 41   next   last



background image
perceived. Deforestation was acknowledged as one of these threats. In Brazil,
deforestation rates are very high; statistics say that up to 20 percent of the
rainforest’s original mass is now deforested.
According to Clearly, a History Professor, the main causes of
deforestation are ranching, agriculture, timber extraction and urban expansion.
Brazilian scientists list “public politics (environmental and economic),
institutional (fragility), agrotechnology, and socio economic (i.e.: population,
income, food demand), that intersected and acted synergistically in the
deforestation of the Amazon, as the main cause for deforestation.
The Amazon is crucial for water cycling that generates rainfall for its
region and the surrounding area, carbon sequestering by holding and absorbing
carbon dioxide and therefore slowing the global warming, and rich biodiversity.
Also, it is rich in biodiversity and natural resources such as timber, aluminum,
copper, tin, nickel, iron, manganese, natural gas and gold.
Gold mining,
performed by Garimpeiros (miners), has not been considered a matter of deep
concern in terms of sustainable development from an environmental protection
perspective, although it has caused much havoc to Brazil’s first peoples
population. Interestingly, Clearly found that the decrease in gold mining has led
to an increase in deforestation.
On the other hand, timber extraction by itself is
one of the main causes of deforestation, and many loggers violate the rights of
Brazil’s first peoples peoples as well as land property owners.
The consequences of habitat loss are “practical and ecological, threatening
economic, agricultural, medical, moral, and aesthetic interests and, ultimately, the
continued viability of life on earth.”
Scott Wallace, author of National
Geographic’s article “Lat of the Amazon,” also acknowledges the trees capacity
to absorb carbon dioxide and further argue that deforestation contributes to global
warming.
Global warming issues began to be discussed in the International
Community forums and during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
Developing countries were suspicious as developed countries proposed the setting
of a global environmental protection agenda.
North-South tensions were settled
with the introduction of the concept of Common but Differentiated
Responsibilities (CBDR). Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration defines CBDR, and
Article 4 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a
common used provision incorporated in most MEAs (Multilateral Environment
Agreements)
which states that “The extent to which developing countries Parties
will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend
on the effective implementation by developed countries Parties of their
commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of
technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development
and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing
country Parties.”
The influence of international renowned conferences and campaigns
boosted national governments efforts to take action to protect their environments.
In Brazil, President Collor launched Operacão Amazonia (Amazonia Operation)
prior to the 1992 Earth Summit Conference. In 1997, in line with the Forest for
10


Convention
Submission, Review, and Scheduling! All Academic Convention can help with all of your abstract management needs and many more. Contact us today for a quote!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 10 of 41   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.