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Japan and the International Whaling Commission: The Curse of Bilateralism in Multilateral Organizations
Unformatted Document Text:  9 Variable Std. Err. z-value -22.52 22.59 -1 IWC affinity (2 year lag) 46.52 25.14 1.85* IWC affinity (3 year lag) 40.59 23.17 1.75* 30.39 9.89 3.07*** Political Regime 19.51 3.16 6.17*** Number of years in IWC 0.13 1.31 0.1 GDG per capita (recipient) 0.00 0.00 -0.66 Distance -0.001 0 -2.19** 202017.20 78669.71 2.57*** Political Regime * IWC -11.74 4.58 -2.56*** GDP per capita * IWC 0.00 0.00 .07 Debt per capita * IWC -228360.50 182627.40 -1.25 -1.530000 18.250000 -0.08 Table 1: FGLS Estimates Dependent Variable:Aid per capita. Mean: 41.15072, Std. Dev: 259.8769 Coefficient IWC affinity (1 year lag) UN friendliness (1 year lag) Constantn = 760 Interaction Variables Debt per capita * <.1 significance ** <.05 significance *** <.01 significance In Table 1, it is interesting to note that votes from the previous year do not seem to influence the foreign aid, when, however, a fidelity premium seems to be rewarded if countries have voted in line with Japan’s agenda in the past two and three years. U.N. friendliness seems also to be rewarded, this time even the previous year’s vote matters. However, a longer fidelity does not seem to have positive marginal effects. Japan does also consider traditional economic development variables. In other words, foreign aid is not only driven by the IWC agenda. For instance, foreign aid rewards countries when they work at improving the democratization of their political regime (see Table 1, political regime variable). Also, the higher the debt, the higher the foreign aid. The most indebted countries are well considered by Japan. Aid is also tied to traditional international trade factors such as distance. The closer a country, the more likely it will receive foreign aid (see Table 1, distance).

Authors: Donahue, Kenneth. and Warin, Thierry.
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9
Variable
Std. Err.
z-value
-22.52
22.59
-1
IWC affinity (2 year lag)
46.52
25.14
1.85*
IWC affinity (3 year lag)
40.59
23.17
1.75*
30.39
9.89
3.07***
Political Regime
19.51
3.16
6.17***
Number of years in IWC
0.13
1.31
0.1
GDG per capita (recipient)
0.00
0.00
-0.66
Distance
-0.001
0
-2.19**
202017.20
78669.71
2.57***
Political Regime * IWC
-11.74
4.58
-2.56***
GDP per capita * IWC
0.00
0.00
.07
Debt per capita * IWC
-228360.50
182627.40 -1.25
-1.530000
18.250000 -0.08
Table 1: FGLS Estimates
Dependent Variable:
Aid per capita. Mean: 41.15072, Std. Dev: 259.8769
Coefficient
IWC affinity (1 year lag)
UN friendliness (1 year lag)
Constant
n = 760
Interaction Variables
Debt per capita
*
<.1 significance
**
<.05 significance
***
<.01 significance


In Table 1, it is interesting to note that votes from the previous year do not seem to
influence the foreign aid, when, however, a fidelity premium seems to be rewarded if
countries have voted in line with Japan’s agenda in the past two and three years. U.N.
friendliness seems also to be rewarded, this time even the previous year’s vote matters.
However, a longer fidelity does not seem to have positive marginal effects.

Japan does also consider traditional economic development variables. In other words,
foreign aid is not only driven by the IWC agenda. For instance, foreign aid rewards
countries when they work at improving the democratization of their political regime (see
Table 1, political regime variable). Also, the higher the debt, the higher the foreign aid.
The most indebted countries are well considered by Japan. Aid is also tied to traditional
international trade factors such as distance. The closer a country, the more likely it will
receive foreign aid (see Table 1, distance).


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