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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  the structure within which it can achieve its aims. High levels of repression can also hinder morale and exacerbate cynicism of the situation, allowing forms of contention previously excluded as overly harsh back onto the table. iii. Grievance: Research on relative deprivation, a theory based on perception of political or economic discrimination, is most commonly associated with Gurr (1968 (a); 1968 (b); 1970). However, the theory was considered even before (e.g. Davies 1962; Galtung 1964). Relative deprivation is defined as “perceptions of discrepancy between their value expectation (the goods and conditions of the life to which they believe they are justifiably entitled) and their value capabilities (the amounts of those goods they think they are able to keep)” (Gurr 1968b, 1104). Economic deprivation and political deprivation are connected. For example, McAdam’s (1982) “political process” model indicates that the nature of political participation allowed in the structure will determine the extent to which group will use violent collective action to express dissent in response to economic deprivation (Muller 1985). Schock (1996) also theorizes a complex causative relationship between political and economic deprivation, arguing that simultaneous political and economic grievances produce violence and the absence of either moderates violence and influences alternative behavior and tactics. For example, Saudi merchants of Muslim Indians, though lacking full or consistent political redress, fail to resort to violence because economic opportunities are able to pacify them as a collective. Alternately, the comparatively moderate Muslim Brotherhood has resorted to violence in both Egypt and Jordan when stripped of political redress during economic slumps but returns to moderation thereafter. Finally, the Ogoni in the oil-rich areas of Nigeria, a group simultaneously excluded from both political and economic redress, has had a history of violent contention. 13

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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the structure within which it can achieve its aims. High levels of repression can also hinder morale
and exacerbate cynicism of the situation, allowing forms of contention previously excluded as
overly harsh back onto the table.
iii. Grievance:
Research on relative deprivation, a theory based on perception of political or
economic discrimination, is most commonly associated with Gurr (1968 (a); 1968 (b); 1970).
However, the theory was considered even before (e.g. Davies 1962; Galtung 1964). Relative
deprivation is defined as “perceptions of discrepancy between their value expectation (the goods
and conditions of the life to which they believe they are justifiably entitled) and their value
capabilities (the amounts of those goods they think they are able to keep)” (Gurr 1968b, 1104).
Economic deprivation and political deprivation are connected. For example, McAdam’s (1982)
“political process” model indicates that the nature of political participation allowed in the structure
will determine the extent to which group will use violent collective action to express dissent in
response to economic deprivation (Muller 1985). Schock (1996) also theorizes a complex causative
relationship between political and economic deprivation, arguing that simultaneous political and
economic grievances produce violence and the absence of either moderates violence and influences
alternative behavior and tactics. For example, Saudi merchants of Muslim Indians, though lacking
full or consistent political redress, fail to resort to violence because economic opportunities are able
to pacify them as a collective. Alternately, the comparatively moderate Muslim Brotherhood has
resorted to violence in both Egypt and Jordan when stripped of political redress during economic
slumps but returns to moderation thereafter. Finally, the Ogoni in the oil-rich areas of Nigeria, a
group simultaneously excluded from both political and economic redress, has had a history of
violent contention.
13


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