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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  According to the grievance literature then, we should expect to see that simultaneous political and economic discrimination will result in the highest level of violence because it blocks all means of redress by the group. Alternately, lower levels of grievance, particularly in the economic dimension will moderate levels of violence by providing alternative routes to redress. III. Methods A. Case Selection: The project proposed in this work focuses on the following examples of janus-faced social movements and their corresponding militias: the IRA, the Black Panthers, Hezbollah and HAMAS. The case selection reflects the mixed method approach proposed. Cases are selected by variation on the dependant variable, of which the IRA, Hezbollah and the Black panthers perfectly illustrate this continuum. However, to hold constant the cultural variables often cited in analyses of Hezbollah, a “most similar” case was also included: HAMAS. To explain this decision, it has been argued that states and even groups within the Middle East exhibit an “exceptional” nature through Arab or Muslim cultural influence which leads them to reject democratic norms of non-violent political activism. 2 In order to address this questionable argument and alleviate possible doubts that the inclusion of a Muslim or Arab case does not evidence an exception to the rule, two similar Arab Muslim groups are included. Hezbollah and HAMAS are most similar in background conditions indlucing: shared history, a shared practice of the Shi’a sect of Islam, “Arab culture,” residence in the Levant and language. The use of these four cases will allow a combination of the method of agreement and method of difference by utilizing a combination of Platt’s (1992) patterns of case selection, grouping the cases both to include polar opposites and presumed uniformity. For example, the cases of HAMAS and Hezbollah, as Shi’ia organizations within the same region with similar shared histories, ideological and real influences, would likely best suit Mill’s method of agreement in their 2 See examples: Korany, 1994; Dalacoura, 2000; Karatnycky 2002; Munson 2003a, 2003b 14

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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According to the grievance literature then, we should expect to see that simultaneous
political and economic discrimination will result in the highest level of violence because it blocks
all means of redress by the group. Alternately, lower levels of grievance, particularly in the
economic dimension will moderate levels of violence by providing alternative routes to redress.
III. Methods
A. Case Selection:
The project proposed in this work focuses on the following examples of
janus-faced social movements and their corresponding militias: the IRA, the Black Panthers,
Hezbollah and HAMAS. The case selection reflects the mixed method approach proposed. Cases
are selected by variation on the dependant variable, of which the IRA, Hezbollah and the Black
panthers perfectly illustrate this continuum. However, to hold constant the cultural variables often
cited in analyses of Hezbollah, a “most similar” case was also included: HAMAS. To explain this
decision, it has been argued that states and even groups within the Middle East exhibit an
“exceptional” nature through Arab or Muslim cultural influence
which leads them to reject
democratic norms of non-violent political activism.
In order to address this questionable
argument and alleviate possible doubts that the inclusion of a Muslim or Arab case does not
evidence an exception to the rule, two similar Arab Muslim groups are included. Hezbollah and
HAMAS are most similar in background conditions indlucing: shared history, a shared practice of
the Shi’a sect of Islam, “Arab culture,” residence in the Levant and language.
The use of these four cases will allow a combination of the method of agreement and
method of difference by utilizing a combination of Platt’s (1992) patterns of case selection,
grouping the cases both to include polar opposites and presumed uniformity. For example, the
cases of HAMAS and Hezbollah, as Shi’ia organizations within the same region with similar shared
histories, ideological and real influences, would likely best suit Mill’s method of agreement in their
2
See examples: Korany, 1994; Dalacoura, 2000; Karatnycky 2002; Munson 2003a, 2003b
14


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