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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  uniformity of process and outcome. Differences might be primarily determined by the lack of state development and the latter organizations’ shorter lifespan. In contrast, these two cases have little to nothing in common with either the Black Panthers or the IRA (nor could these two groups be considered “similar” by any stretch of the imagination), allowing for confidence in a small to nonexistent interaction effect beyond the first two cases. Some background factors are held constant while others are specifically chosen with variance to exclude potential intervening factors. Two specific factors were held constant as part of the theory of this work. One, each group is a minority or is essentially treated as a minority population both politically and economically by the ruling power within their state of origin. This means that the range of generalizability of this analysis is limited—this analysis cannot be generalized to dominant groups that use both force and politics. The phenomenon of interest is specifically defined as choices of behavior among subjugated groups, so this is a purposeful narrowing. Second, each of the cases included must have the ability to utilize either violence or non-violence, making them capable of acting as janus-faced organizations. Each of these cases has a party platform, albeit differently matured, which emphasizes specific local and national political messages that it means to disseminate and problems that it seeks to solve. Each of these cases also has or could have in the past had either a militia or military wing, as is common in transitioning groups. 3 These cases are selected to maximize variance both on the dependant variable (violence or non-violence) and on the independent variables (support, deterrence, grievances). The variance on the dependant variable includes a continuum from complete cooptation and rejection of military means (the IRA years after the Good Friday Peace Accord) to some perpetuation of militancy without any legitimate political capability (the Black Panthers until dissolution). The two mid- 3 See the Polish case in: Grzymala-Busse, Reedeeming the Communist Past 2002. 15

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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uniformity of process and outcome. Differences might be primarily determined by the lack of state
development and the latter organizations’ shorter lifespan. In contrast, these two cases have little to
nothing in common with either the Black Panthers or the IRA (nor could these two groups be
considered “similar” by any stretch of the imagination), allowing for confidence in a small to
nonexistent interaction effect beyond the first two cases.
Some background factors are held constant while others are specifically chosen with
variance to exclude potential intervening factors. Two specific factors were held constant as part of
the theory of this work. One, each group is a minority or is essentially treated as a minority
population both politically and economically by the ruling power within their state of origin. This
means that the range of generalizability of this analysis is limited—this analysis cannot be
generalized to dominant groups that use both force and politics. The phenomenon of interest is
specifically defined as choices of behavior among subjugated groups, so this is a purposeful
narrowing. Second, each of the cases included must have the ability to utilize either violence or
non-violence, making them capable of acting as janus-faced organizations. Each of these cases has
a party platform, albeit differently matured, which emphasizes specific local and national political
messages that it means to disseminate and problems that it seeks to solve. Each of these cases also
has or could have in the past had either a militia or military wing, as is common in transitioning
groups.
These cases are selected to maximize variance both on the dependant variable (violence or
non-violence) and on the independent variables (support, deterrence, grievances). The variance on
the dependant variable includes a continuum from complete cooptation and rejection of military
means (the IRA years after the Good Friday Peace Accord) to some perpetuation of militancy
without any legitimate political capability (the Black Panthers until dissolution). The two mid-
3
See the Polish case in: Grzymala-Busse, Reedeeming the Communist Past 2002.
15


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