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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  legislative posts and higher-level bureaucratic positions. Economic inclusion is more complex. While market access is one component, the amount of infrastructural development (e.g. schools, roads, housing) for regions where the minorities live is also important to this concept. IV. Case Studies A. Hezbollah The origin and evolution of Hezbollah is contextual, based on political environment and history of Lebanon. The confessional system which has existed in different forms since the Ottoman Empire in 1861 helped to create the political environment in which dissent could thrive, specifically among the Shi’ia population (Korayem 2003). Dissent consolidated into the “movement of the deprived” with the introduction of charismatic Musa al-Sadr in the mid-70’s which almost immediately culminated in the first Shi’ia political militia and impetus for the political party, Amal (Harik 1996). This organization created and manned the first political protests for an end to economic and political dislocation of Lebanese Shi’ia (Dikmak 2003). A combination of al Sadr’s disappearance in 1978 and a prolonged Israeli invasion of 1982 (which lasted to some extent until 2000), 5 quickly created divisions within the fledgling AMAL. During the 1982 invasion, established resistance groups such as Amal proved themselves to be unable to defend the population against external aggression. Further, perceived secularization of Amal angered the Shi’a who, incited by the Iranian revolution, saw the use of Islam in overcoming oppression and foreign dominance. This eventually culminated in the splinter movement Islamic Amal, which announced itself as Hezbollah in the 1985 (Jaber 1997). Hezbollah was much more radically militant in the earliest years, probably behind the kidnappings and murders of several Westerners and vows of war against the Israel, their Christian allies and Western supporters. Hezbollah initially hoped to follow the Iranian example of Islamic 5 This date does not include the debate over ownership of the Sheba farms. 18

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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legislative posts and higher-level bureaucratic positions. Economic inclusion is more complex.
While market access is one component, the amount of infrastructural development (e.g. schools,
roads, housing) for regions where the minorities live is also important to this concept.
IV. Case Studies
A. Hezbollah
The origin and evolution of Hezbollah is contextual, based on political environment and
history of Lebanon. The confessional system which has existed in different forms since the
Ottoman Empire in 1861 helped to create the political environment in which dissent could thrive,
specifically among the Shi’ia population (Korayem 2003). Dissent consolidated into the
“movement of the deprived” with the introduction of charismatic Musa al-Sadr in the mid-70’s
which almost immediately culminated in the first Shi’ia political militia and impetus for the
political party, Amal (Harik 1996). This organization created and manned the first political protests
for an end to economic and political dislocation of Lebanese Shi’ia (Dikmak 2003). A combination
of al Sadr’s disappearance in 1978 and a prolonged Israeli invasion of 1982 (which lasted to some
extent until 2000),
quickly created divisions within the fledgling AMAL. During the 1982
invasion, established resistance groups such as Amal proved themselves to be unable to defend the
population against external aggression. Further, perceived secularization of Amal angered the Shi’a
who, incited by the Iranian revolution, saw the use of Islam in overcoming oppression and foreign
dominance. This eventually culminated in the splinter movement Islamic Amal, which announced
itself as Hezbollah in the 1985 (Jaber 1997).
Hezbollah was much more radically militant in the earliest years, probably behind the
kidnappings and murders of several Westerners and vows of war against the Israel, their Christian
allies and Western supporters. Hezbollah initially hoped to follow the Iranian example of Islamic
5
This date does not include the debate over ownership of the Sheba farms.
18


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