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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  a more ominous side of this funding, “They gave them money and gave them conditions on how to use that money. They had to embody the Iranian rhetoric” (2003). Undoubtedly, Iranian funding has given the regime great leverage over Hezbollah since its inception. However, the use and effect of this leverage has shifted over time—allowing Hezbollah to politicize. Iran often held its patronage hostage to enact changes in behavior by Hezbolllah. As the goals of Iran shifted, especially following the death of Khomeini and subsequent rise of Ransanjani, who favored relatively greater courting of Western powers, Iran began pressuring Hezbollah to concurrently shift and become more pragmatic—pushing it further into the political realm. Iran’s more recent swing away from this trend, partially in response to changing US policies in the region, evidenced in the election of Ahmadenijad likely indicates a mirrored trend in the behavior of Hezbollah. ii. Deterrence: Without a viable state to enforce deterrence, one would expect that deterrence played little role in Hezbollah’s development. However, the vacuum of power caused by an impotent state allowed the abuse of Lebanese soil as a platform for foreign states to attack without endangering their own sovereignty (Norton 1993). With an intervention quickly ended in the notorious 1983 bombing of the marine barracks, the US was one of the least involved in Lebanon on the ground while Syria and Israel fought out their feud on Lebanese soil for most of the last half century. These states were therefore involved both in instigating and deterring mobilization of local groups, as it served their interest. This puppeteerring often influenced the course of events in unintended directions, only truly weakening the opposition when excessive force was used. Two brief examples, the 1982 invasion and attacks by Israel prior to the 1992 election will illustrate this point. During the 1982 invasion Israeli attempts to deter mobilization impacted the early development of Hezbollah. The invasion alone would not have provoked the radicalization, but in 21

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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a more ominous side of this funding, “They gave them money and gave them conditions on how to
use that money. They had to embody the Iranian rhetoric” (2003). Undoubtedly, Iranian funding
has given the regime great leverage over Hezbollah since its inception. However, the use and effect
of this leverage has shifted over time—allowing Hezbollah to politicize. Iran often held its
patronage hostage to enact changes in behavior by Hezbolllah. As the goals of Iran shifted,
especially following the death of Khomeini and subsequent rise of Ransanjani, who favored
relatively greater courting of Western powers, Iran began pressuring Hezbollah to concurrently shift
and become more pragmatic—pushing it further into the political realm. Iran’s more recent swing
away from this trend, partially in response to changing US policies in the region, evidenced in the
election of Ahmadenijad likely indicates a mirrored trend in the behavior of Hezbollah.
ii. Deterrence:
Without a viable state to enforce deterrence, one would expect that deterrence
played little role in Hezbollah’s development. However, the vacuum of power caused by an
impotent state allowed the abuse of Lebanese soil as a platform for foreign states to attack without
endangering their own sovereignty (Norton 1993). With an intervention quickly ended in the
notorious 1983 bombing of the marine barracks, the US was one of the least involved in Lebanon
on the ground while Syria and Israel fought out their feud on Lebanese soil for most of the last half
century. These states were therefore involved both in instigating and deterring mobilization of local
groups, as it served their interest. This puppeteerring often influenced the course of events in
unintended directions, only truly weakening the opposition when excessive force was used. Two
brief examples, the 1982 invasion and attacks by Israel prior to the 1992 election will illustrate this
point.
During the 1982 invasion Israeli attempts to deter mobilization impacted the early
development of Hezbollah. The invasion alone would not have provoked the radicalization, but in
21


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