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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  parliament (Hamzeh 1993). Of course, Hezbollah might not have had such results if it weren’t for a boycott of the elections by some Christian groups and recent Israeli attacks that strengthened the image of the group that consistently fought the Israeli invasion. Claims by Hezbollah that Israel was trying to expand the boundaries of their “security zone” were legitimized by daily bombings by IDF forces granting the threat of the IDF forces once again importance as a real topic for the election—bettering Hezbollah’s image of resistance (MEJ 1992c) iii. Grievance The confessional system in Lebanon has been historically divisive, perpetuating social divisions along sectarian lines, in effect, forcing the individual to adapt only to that space which is provided by the sect, finding identity primarily through the sect 9 . In combination with the historically impotent state, this usurpation of individual identity creates an un- civil community without ties beyond the sect, creating sectarian tensions that have resulted in a large amount of factional violence and civil wars throughout the state’s history. Further, division of power inherent in the confessional system perpetuated an unequal super-presidential system 10 that, in combination with the destruction to state infrastructure wrought by civil wars, created a vacuum for goods and services to “minority” groups within Lebanon who were neglected by the patronage- based system (Harik 1996). It was from within this environment and that the southern Shi’ia, whose areas were “absolutely underdeveloped” (Harik 1996), particularly compared to the rest of Lebanon, that the “Shi’ia awakening” took place in the late 1960’s (al Manar 1997). According to the author’s unpublished interview with Sheikh Dikmak of Hezbollah (2003), the primary platforms of this and latter mobilization that formed Hezbollah were the systematic economic neglect by the government and what was perceived to be an outdated political system. This perpetuated the under- representation and political discrimination of the Shi’ia population. Later changes in the political 9 Unpublished personal interview, Korayem, 2003. According to this scholar, there are 18 different sects in Lebanon. 10 Weakened after Ta’if accord in 1989. 23

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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parliament (Hamzeh 1993). Of course, Hezbollah might not have had such results if it weren’t for
a boycott of the elections by some Christian groups and recent Israeli attacks that strengthened the
image of the group that consistently fought the Israeli invasion. Claims by Hezbollah that Israel
was trying to expand the boundaries of their “security zone” were legitimized by daily bombings by
IDF forces granting the threat of the IDF forces once again importance as a real topic for the
election—bettering Hezbollah’s image of resistance (MEJ 1992c)
iii. Grievance
The confessional system in Lebanon has been historically divisive,
perpetuating social divisions along sectarian lines, in effect, forcing the individual to adapt only to
that space which is provided by the sect, finding identity primarily through the sect
combination with the historically impotent state, this usurpation of individual identity creates an un-
civil community without ties beyond the sect, creating sectarian tensions that have resulted in a
large amount of factional violence and civil wars throughout the state’s history. Further, division of
power inherent in the confessional system perpetuated an unequal super-presidential system
that,
in combination with the destruction to state infrastructure wrought by civil wars, created a vacuum
for goods and services to “minority” groups within Lebanon who were neglected by the patronage-
based system (Harik 1996). It was from within this environment and that the southern Shi’ia, whose
areas were “absolutely underdeveloped” (Harik 1996), particularly compared to the rest of Lebanon,
that the “Shi’ia awakening” took place in the late 1960’s (al Manar 1997). According to the
author’s unpublished interview with Sheikh Dikmak of Hezbollah (2003), the primary platforms of
this and latter mobilization that formed Hezbollah were the systematic economic neglect by the
government and what was perceived to be an outdated political system. This perpetuated the under-
representation and political discrimination of the Shi’ia population. Later changes in the political
9
Unpublished personal interview, Korayem, 2003. According to this scholar, there are 18 different sects in Lebanon.
10
Weakened after Ta’if accord in 1989.
23


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