All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  and economic environment instigated by the Ta’if accords and other constitutional changes have mirrored a general reduction in violence. B. HAMAS HAMAS, though regularly included on the US state department list of terrorist organizations, is widely seen both in the Arab world and elsewhere as a legitimate social organization in a struggle for national liberation (Robinson 2004). HAMAS arose out of increasing Palestinian frustration, erupting during the first intifada, and the inability of other groups to achieve the popular goal of resistance. The creation of HAMAS signaled a return to the agency found within Islam with the support and funding of Iran; creating a militant movement which has begun a gradual shift towards civil means, as suits the political atmosphere of the time. HAMAS today is correctly portrayed in both a militant and political light, though until recently little research had been done to combine the two aspects of its nature (see for example Hroub 2000; Sela 2000). What work does attempt to assess the totality of the organization provides some empirical evidence that the violent and popular behaviors of HAMAS are “dynamic and mutually reinforcing” being influenced by the malleable environment (Robinson 2004). This is to say that the organization’s militancy depends on the environment of occupation, as with the previous case. With a perpetuation of the occupying force, they might continue to revert back into militancy to combat their opponent; though as a civil movement they have proven the possibility for political change. i. Support Much like Hezbollah, HAMAS has garnered legitimacy and support of the Palestinian population through both grassroots popular activism and militancy. Portrayals of HAMAS often mirror the freedom fighter/terrorist debate. As problematic as this political labeling may be, it serves to illustrate the divide in support due to HAMAS. On one side, there is fairly consistent sanctioning and attempts to dismantle the group by states like the US and Israel while on 24

Authors: Graham, Leah.
first   previous   Page 24 of 43   next   last



background image
and economic environment instigated by the Ta’if accords and other constitutional changes have
mirrored a general reduction in violence.
B. HAMAS
HAMAS, though regularly included on the US state department list of terrorist
organizations, is widely seen both in the Arab world and elsewhere as a legitimate social
organization in a struggle for national liberation (Robinson 2004). HAMAS arose out of increasing
Palestinian frustration, erupting during the first intifada, and the inability of other groups to achieve
the popular goal of resistance. The creation of HAMAS signaled a return to the agency found
within Islam with the support and funding of Iran; creating a militant movement which has begun a
gradual shift towards civil means, as suits the political atmosphere of the time. HAMAS today is
correctly portrayed in both a militant and political light, though until recently little research had
been done to combine the two aspects of its nature (see for example Hroub 2000; Sela 2000). What
work does attempt to assess the totality of the organization provides some empirical evidence that
the violent and popular behaviors of HAMAS are “dynamic and mutually reinforcing” being
influenced by the malleable environment (Robinson 2004). This is to say that the organization’s
militancy depends on the environment of occupation, as with the previous case. With a
perpetuation of the occupying force, they might continue to revert back into militancy to combat
their opponent; though as a civil movement they have proven the possibility for political change.
i. Support
Much like Hezbollah, HAMAS has garnered legitimacy and support of the
Palestinian population through both grassroots popular activism and militancy. Portrayals of
HAMAS often mirror the freedom fighter/terrorist debate. As problematic as this political labeling
may be, it serves to illustrate the divide in support due to HAMAS. On one side, there is fairly
consistent sanctioning and attempts to dismantle the group by states like the US and Israel while on
24


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 24 of 43   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.