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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  during a brief post-Oslo period, HAMAS formed the Supreme Shura Council and other explicitly political institutions (Robinson 2004). iii. Grievances HAMAS is still a part of a stateless nation that has a perceived or real economic dislocation and absence of perceived opportunities for political redress (Grant and Tessler 2002; Tessler 2002). Grievances of the Palestinian population have not dramatically shifted over the lifetime of this movement and are fairly extreme as noted by the Minorities at Risk (2005) qualitative assessment of this movement: Palestinians experience complete exclusion from the Israeli political process [although note that free and fair elections do occur within the PA] and since the rise of the new intifada in 2000 they have additionally suffered economic exclusion as the border with Israel proper has been closed… [with] the Israeli “security wall” …built cutting several kilometers into West Bank land. This assessment illustrates multiple grievances: economic, including rights to land or property and access to opportunity and political, including restrictions on political liberties. This assessment emphasizes only the relatively long regime of Sharon, thought to have been one of the most iron-fisted modern occupational leaders. During periods of international scrutiny such as that following the first intifada, Oslo, etc, the levels of grievance has lowered somewhat. C. The Black Panthers In 1966, a split took place in the Civil Rights movement between those advocating peaceful, gradual change and those promoting a more proactive (if militant) approach to fighting blatant discrimination still in existence (Jones and Jefferies 1998). The militant civil rights splinter, the early Black Power movement, generally argued that though the Civil Rights Movement had succeeded in ending formal segregation, they had done little to change the actual daily experience of racism in the US. Of the rising Black Power movement, the Panthers were an important subset. Conceptualized by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton while both attended Merritt College, the 27

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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during a brief post-Oslo period, HAMAS formed the Supreme Shura Council and other
explicitly political institutions (Robinson 2004).
iii. Grievances
HAMAS is still a part of a stateless nation that has a perceived or real
economic dislocation and absence of perceived opportunities for political redress (Grant and Tessler
2002; Tessler 2002). Grievances of the Palestinian population have not dramatically shifted over
the lifetime of this movement and are fairly extreme as noted by the Minorities at Risk (2005)
qualitative assessment of this movement:
Palestinians experience complete exclusion from the Israeli political process
[although note that free and fair elections do occur within the PA] and since the rise
of the new intifada in 2000 they have additionally suffered economic exclusion as the
border with Israel proper has been closed… [with] the Israeli “security wall” …built
cutting several kilometers into West Bank land.
This assessment illustrates multiple grievances: economic, including rights to land or
property and access to opportunity and political, including restrictions on political liberties. This
assessment emphasizes only the relatively long regime of Sharon, thought to have been one of the
most iron-fisted modern occupational leaders. During periods of international scrutiny such as that
following the first intifada, Oslo, etc, the levels of grievance has lowered somewhat.
C. The Black Panthers
In 1966, a split took place in the Civil Rights movement between those advocating peaceful,
gradual change and those promoting a more proactive (if militant) approach to fighting blatant
discrimination still in existence (Jones and Jefferies 1998). The militant civil rights splinter, the
early Black Power movement, generally argued that though the Civil Rights Movement had
succeeded in ending formal segregation, they had done little to change the actual daily experience
of racism in the US. Of the rising Black Power movement, the Panthers were an important subset.
Conceptualized by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton while both attended Merritt College, the
27


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