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Janus-faced Social Movements: Factors that Influence the Choice of Non-violent over Violent Tactics in Political Movements
Unformatted Document Text:  (Churchill 2001). Although the aggravated repression experienced by the panthers did eventually lead to a less millitant reformation of their resistance tactics, it also accelerated the divide between the moderates in this camp and the radicals that eventually formed the Black Liberation Army (Umoja 2001). The consistent, aggravated level of deterrence aimed at the Panthers had a number of outcomes. First, it aggravated disharmony within the Panther chapters and reduced their capability to discipline the behavior of members. Second, it weakened both the human and financial capital able to be directed at the social services that earned the movement such credibility locally and nationally. Third, deterrence minimized the capital able to bedeployed in non-violent political organization. Finally, the results of the aggravated level of deterrence collectively weakened the Panther leader’s and organizations public legitimacy leading to reduced support and eventual deterioration of the movement. iii. Grievance The sheer bulk maliciousness of deterrence propagated by the FBI might evidence to the reader what grievances the Party represented, garnering such quick and relatively strong support from black communities. The day to day racism and inferior treatment of black populations by individuals as well as state institutions was still an active, obvious reality at the time of the Party inception. As the Panther example illustrates, repression of black populations was often politically motivated during this period and a number of other institutionalized aspects of a negatively racialized experience for black populations were readily apparent even following the dismantling of legal segregation by the Civil Rights Movement. Further, economic inequalities and the historic systematic barriers of access to political redress additionally exacerbated these grievances. Particularly in light of the fact that advances made by the Civil Rights Movement illustrated to 31

Authors: Graham, Leah.
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(Churchill 2001).
Although the aggravated repression experienced by the panthers did
eventually lead to a less millitant reformation of their resistance tactics, it also accelerated the
divide between the moderates in this camp and the radicals that eventually formed the Black
Liberation Army (Umoja 2001).
The consistent, aggravated level of deterrence aimed at the Panthers had a number of
outcomes. First, it aggravated disharmony within the Panther chapters and reduced their capability
to discipline the behavior of members. Second, it weakened both the human and financial capital
able to be directed at the social services that earned the movement such credibility locally and
nationally. Third, deterrence minimized the capital able to bedeployed in non-violent political
organization. Finally, the results of the aggravated level of deterrence collectively weakened the
Panther leader’s and organizations public legitimacy leading to reduced support and eventual
deterioration of the movement.
iii. Grievance
The sheer bulk maliciousness of deterrence propagated by the FBI might evidence to the
reader what grievances the Party represented, garnering such quick and relatively strong support
from black communities. The day to day racism and inferior treatment of black populations by
individuals as well as state institutions was still an active, obvious reality at the time of the Party
inception. As the Panther example illustrates, repression of black populations was often politically
motivated during this period and a number of other institutionalized aspects of a negatively
racialized experience for black populations were readily apparent even following the dismantling of
legal segregation by the Civil Rights Movement. Further, economic inequalities and the historic
systematic barriers of access to political redress additionally exacerbated these grievances.
Particularly in light of the fact that advances made by the Civil Rights Movement illustrated to
31


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