All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

A Contentious Popular History of Post-Communism: The Case of Bulgaria, 1996-2005
Unformatted Document Text:  11 protest activism. On average, 37% of the performances reported in Bulgaria from 1996 to 2005 were conventional and 63% - unconventional. More importantly over the decade, the number of conventional performances increased significantly at the expense of mostly violent and disruptive 39 tactics. [Please refer to Table 1.] Another related indicator, used by social movements scholars to operationalize the institutionalization of protest, is the share of violent performances. On average attack on individuals and property were staged in less than 2% all sampled protests. The use of those tactics declined over time but was rare in general and zero since 2002. Where violence occurred, it was usually a result of the radicalization of disruptive tactics such as blockades, which spilled over into use of force against enterprise management and property and sometimes in spontaneous protests, which took the form of unruly riots. Table 1. Percent of Performances by Type by Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Conventional 30 33 34 33 34 38 41 39 46 47 Unconventional 70 67 66 67 66 66 59 61 54 53 Bulgarian protesters displayed some tactical versatility; in 65% of the sampled protests at least 2 action forms were used and in 15% of the protests more than 4 tactics were deployed. The longer the more complicated (campaigns) the protest, and the larger the number of organizers, the more action forms diversity there was frequently spanning action forms categories. In general, Bulgarian protests were largely demonstrative and conventional. The use of demonstrative and confrontational tactics seemed to be used to amplify the effect of other protest modes. Rallies, demonstrations, and marches (20% of all performances) and sometimes symbolic actions (4% especially popular since 2000) frequently followed conventional protest forms such as petitions, open letters (5% steadily used throughout the decade) and appeals to political figures or institutions (17% of all sampled protests), lawsuits (5% of all sampled events but especially popular since 2000) and media-directed activities (5%). Such sequencing of collective action was most popular amongst self-organized groups and NGOs especially in the latter part of the decade. Another frequent scenario used however by unions was conventional protest followed by a threat to undertake strikes – threats, which were preferred tactic throughout the decade but which rarely led to effective strikes after 2000. Another interpretation of the institutionalization of protest includes changes in the organizational involvement in protest politics. What is the role that formal organizations play in the institutionalization and de-radicalization of protest? If organizational involvement increased while tactics became less radical, then there is a possible connection between formal organization and conventional protests. On average over the decade, 30% of all protests were self-organized, 66% of protests were led by one or two organizations and 4% featured more three or more sponsors. From 1996 to 2005, no formal organizations were present for about 22% of the protests with the exception of 1997-98 and 2004-2005, when the number of self-organized protest doubled. [Please 39 Strikes were not a popular protest tactic; they were seen as an action form of last resort and were most used in 1996-2000. Daskalova and Mikhailova, “Industrial disputes and strikes in Bulgaria.” Amongst the disruptive protest forms preferred were blockades (6% of all sampled protests) and work disruptions and occupations (6%).

Authors: Petrova, Tsveta.
first   previous   Page 11 of 20   next   last



background image
11
protest activism. On average, 37% of the performances reported in Bulgaria from 1996 to
2005 were conventional and 63% - unconventional. More importantly over the decade,
the number of conventional performances increased significantly at the expense of mostly
violent and disruptive
39
tactics. [Please refer to Table 1.] Another related indicator, used
by social movements scholars to operationalize the institutionalization of protest, is the
share of violent performances. On average attack on individuals and property were staged
in less than 2% all sampled protests. The use of those tactics declined over time but was
rare in general and zero since 2002. Where violence occurred, it was usually a result of
the radicalization of disruptive tactics such as blockades, which spilled over into use of
force against enterprise management and property and sometimes in spontaneous
protests, which took the form of unruly riots.
Table 1. Percent of Performances by Type by Year
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Conventional
30
33
34
33
34
38
41
39
46
47
Unconventional
70
67
66
67
66
66
59
61
54
53
Bulgarian protesters displayed some tactical versatility; in 65% of the sampled
protests at least 2 action forms were used and in 15% of the protests more than 4 tactics
were deployed. The longer the more complicated (campaigns) the protest, and the larger
the number of organizers, the more action forms diversity there was frequently spanning
action forms categories. In general, Bulgarian protests were largely demonstrative and
conventional. The use of demonstrative and confrontational tactics seemed to be used to
amplify the effect of other protest modes. Rallies, demonstrations, and marches (20% of
all performances) and sometimes symbolic actions (4% especially popular since 2000)
frequently followed conventional protest forms such as petitions, open letters (5%
steadily used throughout the decade) and appeals to political figures or institutions (17%
of all sampled protests), lawsuits (5% of all sampled events but especially popular since
2000) and media-directed activities (5%). Such sequencing of collective action was most
popular amongst self-organized groups and NGOs especially in the latter part of the
decade. Another frequent scenario used however by unions was conventional protest
followed by a threat to undertake strikes – threats, which were preferred tactic throughout
the decade but which rarely led to effective strikes after 2000.
Another interpretation of the institutionalization of protest includes changes in the
organizational involvement in protest politics. What is the role that formal organizations
play in the institutionalization and de-radicalization of protest? If organizational
involvement increased while tactics became less radical, then there is a possible
connection between formal organization and conventional protests. On average over the
decade, 30% of all protests were self-organized, 66% of protests were led by one or two
organizations and 4% featured more three or more sponsors. From 1996 to 2005, no
formal organizations were present for about 22% of the protests with the exception of
1997-98 and 2004-2005, when the number of self-organized protest doubled. [Please
39
Strikes were not a popular protest tactic; they were seen as an action form of last resort and were most
used in 1996-2000. Daskalova and Mikhailova, “Industrial disputes and strikes in Bulgaria.” Amongst the
disruptive protest forms preferred were blockades (6% of all sampled protests) and work disruptions and
occupations (6%).


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 11 of 20   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.