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Can Bribes Buy Protection Against International Competition?
Unformatted Document Text:  Table 5. Robustness, regulatory barriers, alternative indicators TI corruption Kaufmann corruption 1 2 3 4 5 Corruption .269*** .373** .945*** 1.189*** 1.034*** (.066) (.069) (.205) (.255) (.195) Press freedom -.002 (.008) Free speech -.002 .128 -.065 (.228) (.221) (.231) Corruption*speech -.273*** -.286 (.078) (.195) Corruption*freedom .011 (.007) Observations 152 152 171 171 171 Countries 70 70 78 78 78 R squared between .803 .825 .756 .772 .759 R squared within .319 .350 .347 .323 .349 Wald Chi squared 278.84 326.60 278.75 292.26 283.29 Hausman test 12.26*** 8.75*** 27.64*** 26.23** 17.22** Breusch-Pagan 2.06 4.89 11.80*** 9.11*** 9.94*** Note: all regressions include the full baseline; *** (**) [*] denote significance at p<.01 (p<0.5) [p<.10]. Note that even while the Hausmann tests are significant when using the Kauffman corruption index, the fixed effects estimates are of the same size and significant at p<.05. 32

Authors: Bjørnskov, Christian.
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Table 5. Robustness, regulatory barriers, alternative indicators
TI corruption
Kaufmann corruption
1
2
3
4
5
Corruption
.269***
.373**
.945***
1.189***
1.034***
(.066)
(.069)
(.205)
(.255)
(.195)
Press freedom
-.002
(.008)
Free speech
-.002
.128
-.065
(.228)
(.221)
(.231)
Corruption*speech
-.273***
-.286
(.078)
(.195)
Corruption*freedom
.011
(.007)

Observations
152
152
171
171
171
Countries
70
70
78
78
78
R squared between
.803
.825
.756
.772
.759
R squared within
.319
.350
.347
.323
.349
Wald Chi squared
278.84
326.60
278.75
292.26
283.29
Hausman test
12.26***
8.75***
27.64***
26.23**
17.22**
Breusch-Pagan
2.06
4.89
11.80***
9.11***
9.94***
Note: all regressions include the full baseline; *** (**) [*] denote significance at p<.01 (p<0.5) [p<.10].
Note that even while the Hausmann tests are significant when using the Kauffman corruption index, the
fixed effects estimates are of the same size and significant at p<.05.
32


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