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Hearts, Minds, and Tulips: The Contribution of Active Intelligence in Understanding Dutch Politics
Unformatted Document Text:  Capelos: Emotionality, Vote, and Party Identification - 15 - emotional reactions to parties and their leaders 1 . In this study, emotionality was assessed with the use of specific affect measures of pride, enthusiasm, worry and irritation, and with general sympathy feeling thermometers. More specifically, participants were asked to assess the extent to which parties and their leaders made them feel enthusiastic, proud, irritated or worried. They were also asked to indicate how sympathetic they felt overall towards each party and its leader. In this paper, it is essential to identify complacent and anxious voters. For this, I use measures of political anxiety, addressing the theoretical concerns discussed earlier. To allow for comparisons with the ANES data, I show the levels of anxiety of Dutch voters towards their political leaders. Here I identified as anxious the respondents who reported above average levels of anxiety (irritation and worry) for the leader of the party they voted for. Because levels of anxiety towards the leaders of participants’ favoured parties are expected to be low, for the main analysis of the paper I use anxiety measures that reflect anxiety towards political parties. As we discussed previously, this choice is justified on the basis of the significant position of parties in Dutch politics. The measure is similar to the one used by Marcus et al. (2000), adjusted for intensity. While the Marcus et al. (2000) study identifies as anxious the respondents who were angry or afraid towards the candidate of the party they voted for, here anxious are the respondents who feel irritation or worry towards their own party 2 . To allow comparisons with earlier DNES data (2002), I also use a more general variation of this measure based on the sympathy scores of the party voted for. Here as anxious are marked the voters who give their party a score below the midpoint, on a 0-10 feeling thermometer scale 3 . The DNES 2002 data was collected in the period during and directly after the campaigns for national legislative elections in the consecutive election 1 In addition, the questionnaire contains items of party preference, leader evaluations, issue preferences, interest in politics, media exposure, attention to the political campaigns, and a set of standard demographic questions. 2 The NES survey uses 4 point scales for the emotionality variables, with responses: a great deal, some, a little, not at all, and Marcus et al identified as anxious the respondents who answered a great deal, some, or a little, in either of the two questions. The DNES survey uses 8 point scales for the irritation and worry variables. I identified as anxious the respondents who answered above the midpoint in either of the two questions. 3 For this measure, in the 2006 DNES I identified as anxious respondents with overall evaluations scores towards their party or their party’s leader that fall below the midpoint on a 0-10 sympathy scale. In the 2002 DNES, anxious are the respondents with overall scores below the midpoint on a 0-100 sympathy scale.

Authors: Capelos, Tereza.
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Capelos: Emotionality, Vote, and Party Identification
- 15 -
emotional reactions to parties and their leaders
1
. In this study, emotionality was assessed
with the use of specific affect measures of pride, enthusiasm, worry and irritation, and
with general sympathy feeling thermometers. More specifically, participants were asked
to assess the extent to which parties and their leaders made them feel enthusiastic, proud,
irritated or worried. They were also asked to indicate how sympathetic they felt overall
towards each party and its leader.
In this paper, it is essential to identify complacent and anxious voters. For this, I
use measures of political anxiety, addressing the theoretical concerns discussed earlier.
To allow for comparisons with the ANES data, I show the levels of anxiety of Dutch
voters towards their political leaders. Here I identified as anxious the respondents who
reported above average levels of anxiety (irritation and worry) for the leader of the party
they voted for. Because levels of anxiety towards the leaders of participants’ favoured
parties are expected to be low, for the main analysis of the paper I use anxiety measures
that reflect anxiety towards political parties. As we discussed previously, this choice is
justified on the basis of the significant position of parties in Dutch politics. The measure
is similar to the one used by Marcus et al. (2000), adjusted for intensity. While the
Marcus et al. (2000) study identifies as anxious the respondents who were angry or afraid
towards the candidate of the party they voted for, here anxious are the respondents who
feel irritation or worry towards their own party
2
.
To allow comparisons with earlier DNES data (2002), I also use a more general
variation of this measure based on the sympathy scores of the party voted for. Here as
anxious are marked the voters who give their party a score below the midpoint, on a 0-10
feeling thermometer scale
3
. The DNES 2002 data was collected in the period during and
directly after the campaigns for national legislative elections in the consecutive election
1
In addition, the questionnaire contains items of party preference, leader evaluations, issue preferences,
interest in politics, media exposure, attention to the political campaigns, and a set of standard demographic
questions.
2
The NES survey uses 4 point scales for the emotionality variables, with responses: a great deal, some, a
little, not at all, and Marcus et al identified as anxious the respondents who answered a great deal, some, or
a little, in either of the two questions. The DNES survey uses 8 point scales for the irritation and worry
variables. I identified as anxious the respondents who answered above the midpoint in either of the two
questions.
3
For this measure, in the 2006 DNES I identified as anxious respondents with overall evaluations scores
towards their party or their party’s leader that fall below the midpoint on a 0-10 sympathy scale. In the
2002 DNES, anxious are the respondents with overall scores below the midpoint on a 0-100 sympathy
scale.


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