All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Language, Technology, and the Decentralization of the State: Comparative Analysis of Turkey, Iran, and Iraq
Unformatted Document Text:  15 purposefully forgotten ethnic group in Iraq. This was not just a simple lapse of memory on Talabani’s part. Denial of the existence of hundreds of thousands of Assyrians, especially in the heartland of Assyria (Northern Iraq) has been the policy of Kurdish Parliament and indirectly supported by World Democracy Advocate, The United States and western media in general. All we ever hear is about Arabs (Shiite and Sunnis) and Kurds in Iraq. (Assyria Times 2006) In a strikingly similar fashion to that of Kurdish language groups in Turkey and Iran, Assyrians and their diaspora groups based out of the West have begun to use the internet to advocate for their own language rights. The Assyrian Academic Society (AAS), 37 An Assyrian diaspora organization, based in Chicago, has been advocating for increased representation in Iraq and inclusion in the constitution-writing process since 1994. They called for protection against language discrimination at the hands of the Kurds (AAS 2004). Turkey Language planning, policy, and rights have been central to the development of the Turkish state since before it was founded in 1923 (Perry 1995). 38 Both actors within Turkey and international actors have always had a stake in Turkish state language policies. However, language policies have gained particular attention since Turkey became an associate member of the European Community in 1963 and then formally applied for full membership in 1987 to what is now called 37 The AAS was formed in 1983 and claims to represent the largest and oldest Assyrian diaspora communities in the world. The AAS “Assyrian culture, history, and knowledge throughout a variety of activities including publications, lectures, and seminars. Its goal is to serve as an educational arm within the Assyrian diaspora and to introduce Assyrian heritage and contemporary history to the outside world.” The group chronicles Kurdish action taken against the Chaldeo-Assyrians which mirrors that of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Some of these actions include forced displacement, abductions and rapes, Kurdification of the northern Iraq school systems, and campaigns to refer to the group as “Christian Kurds” (AAS March 2004). Ted Robert Gurr and Walker Conner both discussed the likelihood that minority language groups tend to resort to coercive tactics against minorities when granted rights of their own. They argue, along with Kaldor, that the system which benefits ethnic territorialism leads to this type of political violence (Gurr and Harff 2004, Conner 2004, and Kaldor 1999, Gagnon 1994-1995). This evaluation certainly seems to apply to the Kurds if the Assyrian situation continues to deteriorate. 38 During Tanzimat the Ottoman Empire had worked to simplify Turkish as the language of state administration. The Kurds during this time appealed to the international community for language rights and successfully included their language and national interests in the debates of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and some independent rights for the Kurds were included in the the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 (Blau 1996). Meanwhile the Young Turks had been working to simplify the newspaper language and to remove loan words from other languages. Mustafa Kemal had promised language and other rights to the Kurds and the Armenians in order to gain their support during the the Young Turk uprising that eventually brought him to power. Once in power Kemal Atatürk, as he became known, made speech in any language other than Turkish a crime (Perry 1995).

Authors: Gannon-Kurowski, Solveig.
first   previous   Page 15 of 21   next   last



background image
15
purposefully forgotten ethnic group in Iraq. This was not just a simple lapse of memory
on Talabani’s part. Denial of the existence of hundreds of thousands of Assyrians,
especially in the heartland of Assyria (Northern Iraq) has been the policy of Kurdish
Parliament and indirectly supported by World Democracy Advocate, The United States
and western media in general. All we ever hear is about Arabs (Shiite and Sunnis) and
Kurds in Iraq. (Assyria Times 2006)
In a strikingly similar fashion to that of Kurdish language groups in Turkey and Iran,
Assyrians and their diaspora groups based out of the West have begun to use the internet to
advocate for their own language rights.
The Assyrian Academic Society (AAS),
37
An Assyrian
diaspora organization, based in Chicago, has been advocating for increased representation in Iraq
and inclusion in the constitution-writing process since 1994. They called for protection against
language discrimination at the hands of the Kurds (AAS 2004).
Turkey
Language planning, policy, and rights have been central to the development of the Turkish state
since before it was founded in 1923 (Perry 1995).
38
Both actors within Turkey and international
actors have always had a stake in Turkish state language policies. However, language policies
have gained particular attention since Turkey became an associate member of the European
Community in 1963 and then formally applied for full membership in 1987 to what is now called
37
The AAS was formed in 1983 and claims to represent the largest and oldest Assyrian diaspora communities in the
world. The AAS “Assyrian culture, history, and knowledge throughout a variety of activities including
publications, lectures, and seminars. Its goal is to serve as an educational arm within the Assyrian diaspora and to
introduce Assyrian heritage and contemporary history to the outside world.” The group chronicles Kurdish action
taken against the Chaldeo-Assyrians which mirrors that of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Some of these actions
include forced displacement, abductions and rapes, Kurdification of the northern Iraq school systems, and
campaigns to refer to the group as “Christian Kurds” (AAS March 2004). Ted Robert Gurr and Walker Conner both
discussed the likelihood that minority language groups tend to resort to coercive tactics against minorities when
granted rights of their own. They argue, along with Kaldor, that the system which benefits ethnic territorialism
leads to this type of political violence (Gurr and Harff 2004, Conner 2004, and Kaldor 1999, Gagnon 1994-1995).
This evaluation certainly seems to apply to the Kurds if the Assyrian situation continues to deteriorate.
38
During Tanzimat the Ottoman Empire had worked to simplify Turkish as the language of state administration. The
Kurds during this time appealed to the international community for language rights and successfully included their
language and national interests in the debates of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and some independent rights
for the Kurds were included in the the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 (Blau 1996). Meanwhile the Young Turks had been
working to simplify the newspaper language and to remove loan words from other languages. Mustafa Kemal had
promised language and other rights to the Kurds and the Armenians in order to gain their support during the the
Young Turk uprising that eventually brought him to power. Once in power Kemal Atatürk, as he became known,
made speech in any language other than Turkish a crime (Perry 1995).


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 15 of 21   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.