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Language, Technology, and the Decentralization of the State: Comparative Analysis of Turkey, Iran, and Iraq
Unformatted Document Text:  9 Kurdish domain after Palestinians were successful in their application (Roshani 2001). The process of obtaining this domain is, by design, internationally oriented since Internet Company for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is currently the only company that can provide this service. ICANN is a private U.S. company working closely with the United States government agency the Internet Assigned Numers Authority (IANA)(Contract Between ICANN and the United States Government 2003). The Kurdish Computer Society has not succeeded in obtaining the top-level domain name (IANA report 2000) but, as is evident in the quotation above, Kurdish activists are making efforts to decentralize legitimate authority over their territorial and linguistic aspirations. Other Kurdish online efforts have been successful. The development of Kurdish media and the proliferation of Kurdish political party websites is an indication of this (Romano 2002). One of the most significant foci for Kurdish statehood and independence has been in the arena of language. By creating geographically dispersed yet interconnected advocacy networks 23 Kurds managed to undermine the political control of territorially based states over Kurdish language development. For many, the end goal of this effort is a desire for territorial control, 24 which is one of the primary prerequisites to international recognition and self-determination. The Kurds have pursued this goal since the end of World War I, when they were denied statehood partly on the basis that they did not have a developed written language for administration (Kreyenbroek 1996). With the use of the internet, breaking down some of the barriers to contact with international language experts, the development, standardization and study of the Kurdish language has increased and Kurdish language goals are now within reach. Now, the political space Kurds and their international advocates have created online facilitates the acquisition of territorial space and is seen as a serious threat to state control in Turkey and Iran. The following section provides a brief overview of some of the international advocacy networks and their goals. Language and Power: an international perspective Nearly every European country has a Kurdish research center that is partly funded by public monies. The United States and other countries also have centers devoted to Kurdish issues. 23 Jilliana Enteen recognized a similar phenomenon with the Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka (2006).

Authors: Gannon-Kurowski, Solveig.
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9
Kurdish domain after Palestinians were successful in their application (Roshani 2001). The
process of obtaining this domain is, by design, internationally oriented since Internet Company
for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is currently the only company that can provide this
service. ICANN is a private U.S. company working closely with the United States government
agency the Internet Assigned Numers Authority (IANA)(Contract Between ICANN and the
United States Government 2003). The Kurdish Computer Society has not succeeded in obtaining
the top-level domain name (IANA report 2000) but, as is evident in the quotation above, Kurdish
activists are making efforts to decentralize legitimate authority over their territorial and linguistic
aspirations.
Other Kurdish online efforts have been successful. The development of Kurdish media
and the proliferation of Kurdish political party websites is an indication of this (Romano 2002).
One of the most significant foci for Kurdish statehood and independence has been in the arena of
language. By creating geographically dispersed yet interconnected advocacy networks
23
Kurds
managed to undermine the political control of territorially based states over Kurdish language
development. For many, the end goal of this effort is a desire for territorial control,
24
which is
one of the primary prerequisites to international recognition and self-determination.
The Kurds have pursued this goal since the end of World War I, when they were denied
statehood partly on the basis that they did not have a developed written language for
administration (Kreyenbroek 1996). With the use of the internet, breaking down some of the
barriers to contact with international language experts, the development, standardization and
study of the Kurdish language has increased and Kurdish language goals are now within reach.
Now, the political space Kurds and their international advocates have created online facilitates
the acquisition of territorial space and is seen as a serious threat to state control in Turkey and
Iran.
The following section provides a brief overview of some of the international advocacy
networks and their goals.

Language and Power: an international perspective
Nearly every European country has a Kurdish research center that is partly funded by public
monies. The United States and other countries also have centers devoted to Kurdish issues.
23
Jilliana Enteen recognized a similar phenomenon with the Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka (2006).


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