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I Got Your Back: The Effect of Environmental Support for the Public Manager
Unformatted Document Text:  Melton 5 then, should matter differently for overall district performance than for Anglo superintendents. Because minority superintendents are documented as more focused on group goals, they may include the preferences and goals of parents, teachers, and the school board in their decision-making. Therefore, it is not illogical to conclude that a ‘meeting of the minds’ among these actors would increase the potentiality of increased performance by districts led by minority, or collectivist, superintendents. The O’Toole-Meier Management Model A review of the literature reveals few efforts to specify a model for what might be called a public- managerial influence on performance. O’Toole and Meier (1999) advance the understanding of public management by putting forth a parsimonious, yet highly explanatory, model for predicting performance. “In seeking to understand the relationship among public management, institutional arrangements, and public program performance” (Meier and O’Toole 2006), they present: O t = β 1 (S+M 1 )O t-1 + β 2 (X t /S)(M 3 /M 4 ) + ε t where O is some measure of outcome, S is some measure of stability, M denotes management, which can be divided into three parts: M1, or management within the organization, M3, or management’s efforts to exploit environmental pressures, M4, or management’s efforts to buffer environmental pressures, X is a vector of environmental forces, ε is an error term, the other subscripts denote time periods while β 1 and β 2 are estimable parameters. 5

Authors: Melton, Erin.
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Melton 5
then, should matter differently for overall district performance than for Anglo superintendents. Because
minority superintendents are documented as more focused on group goals, they may include the
preferences and goals of parents, teachers, and the school board in their decision-making. Therefore, it
is not illogical to conclude that a ‘meeting of the minds’ among these actors would increase the
potentiality of increased performance by districts led by minority, or collectivist, superintendents.
The O’Toole-Meier Management Model
A review of the literature reveals few efforts to specify a model for what might be called a public-
managerial influence on performance. O’Toole and Meier (1999) advance the understanding of public
management by putting forth a parsimonious, yet highly explanatory, model for predicting performance.
“In seeking to understand the relationship among public management, institutional arrangements, and
public program performance” (Meier and O’Toole 2006), they present:
O
t
= β
1
(S+M
1
)O
t-1
+ β
2
(X
t
/S)(M
3
/M
4
) + ε
t
where
O is some measure of outcome,
S is some measure of stability,
M denotes management, which can be divided into three parts:
M1, or management within the organization,
M3, or management’s efforts to exploit environmental pressures,
M4, or management’s efforts to buffer environmental pressures,
X is a vector of environmental forces,
ε is an error term,
the other subscripts denote time periods while β
1
and
β
2
are estimable parameters.
5


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