All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Enduring Effects of Tobacco Litigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Pro­Plaintiff, Pro­Defense, and Governmental Frames by Parties and Waves Government parties mentioned No governmental parties mentioned No lawsuit(s) mentioned Party or Parties Explicit Wav e 4 (2000- 2005) Wav e 3 (1993- 1999) Wav e 2 (1984- 1992) Waves of S u its & C overag e 114 1 206 83 33 250 33 66 156 22 24 62 29 6 161 7 6 81 10 6 52 89 175 10 40 Pro­Defendant Frame Government Frame Pro­Plaintiff Frame Composite Framings Vilification. Scholars have tied the shift in legal strategy that followed Cipollone to the routine “demonization” and vilification of “corporate evil” in the 1990s (Kagan 2001:21; Derthick 2001). There is some undeniable truth in this claim. Convenient as it would be for anti­tobacco activists if they could parlay the institutional negatives inherent in some frames [“Corporate Duplicity” provides the starkest example] with personal negatives in reports, however, such reports would openly violate norms of reporting. Let­ters to editors, editorials, and thematic pieces may vilify defendants and their lawyers far more and far more readily than spot­reports of lawsuits. 17 Reporters are trained to be ob­ jective in “straight reporting.” Editors police reports to keep them fair and balanced. 17 In our samples from The New York Times, however, “Corporations” and “Corporate Interest Groups” are the only agents or actors characterized more negatively than one would expect from proportional distributions in marginal frequencies. In the ten other categories, “neutral” codes are more numerous than expected from marginal frequencies, and observed counts in pejorative and meliorative categories alike are less than or about equal to expected counts. Regarding corporations, counts for episodic items hover somewhat above expected counts across the board and substantially above expected counts for pejorative references. Items other than episodic items, however, are far more negative than are episodic items. 23

Authors: Haltom, William., McCann, Michael. and Fisher, Shauna.
first   previous   Page 23 of 40   next   last



background image
Pro­Plaintiff, Pro­Defense, and Governmental Frames by Parties and Waves 
Government 
parties mentioned
No governmental 
parties mentioned
No lawsuit(s) 
mentioned
Party or Parties Explicit
W
av
e
 
(
200
0-
200
5)
W
av
e
 
(
199
3-
199
9)
W
av
e
 
(
198
4-
199
2)
Waves
 
of
 
S
u
i
t
s
 
&
 
C
o
ver
ag
e
114
1
206
83
33
250
33
66
156
22
24
62
29
6
161
7
6
81
10
6
52
89
175
10
40
Pro­Defendant Frame
Government Frame
Pro­Plaintiff Frame
Composite Framings
Vilification.  Scholars have tied the shift in legal strategy that followed Cipollone 
to the routine “demonization” and vilification of “corporate evil” in the 1990s (Kagan 
2001:21; Derthick 2001).  There is some undeniable truth in this claim.  Convenient as it 
would be for anti­tobacco activists if they could parlay the institutional negatives inherent 
in some frames [“Corporate Duplicity” provides the starkest example] with personal 
negatives in reports, however, such reports would openly violate norms of reporting.  Let­
ters to editors, editorials, and thematic pieces may vilify defendants and their lawyers far 
more and far more readily than spot­reports of lawsuits.
  Reporters are trained to be ob­
jective in “straight reporting.”  Editors police reports to keep them fair and balanced. 
17
   In our samples from The New York Times, however, “Corporations” and “Corporate Interest Groups” 
are the only agents or actors characterized more negatively than one would expect from proportional 
distributions in marginal frequencies.  In the ten other categories, “neutral” codes are more numerous than 
expected from marginal frequencies, and observed counts in pejorative and meliorative categories alike are 
less than or about equal to expected counts.  Regarding corporations, counts for episodic items hover 
somewhat above expected counts across the board and substantially above expected counts for pejorative 
references.  Items other than episodic items, however, are far more negative than are episodic items.
23


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 23 of 40   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.