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Effects of Welfare Policies on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes: The Differences between Active Policies and Passive Policies

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Generous welfare policies are sometimes considered to be incompatible with influx of immigrants. This statement corroborates the group threat theory according to which social security is a privilege of the majority. However, it is also considered that generous welfare reduces anti-immigrant hostility by alleviating economic vulnerability of a country’s citizens. This study analyzes the relationship between welfare and anti-immigrant attitudes. It pays attention to the differences between active welfare policies and passive welfare policies, since they have different ideological bases and can have opposing effects on anti-immigrant attitudes; active policies are based on individualism, which may in turn weaken anti-immigrant attitudes while passive policies based on solidarity, which may in turn strengthen anti-immigrant attitudes. From the analysis of the cross-national data (World Value Surveys), the following results are found. In countries that allocate large budgets for active welfare policies, the citizens become more tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, those who are unemployed become more likely to accept the equal distribution of resources between themselves and immigrants. On the contrary, in countries that allocate large budgets for passive welfare policies, the citizens have more of an exclusionary attitude toward immigrants. Although both policies reduce vulnerability to a certain extent, passive welfare is likely to be perceived as a privilege exclusively for citizens. Therefore, generous passive welfare can lead to the perception of group threats, unlike active welfare policies.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

welfar (141), polici (120), immigr (114), attitud (83), countri (81), citizen (62), anti (55), anti-immigr (53), social (50), ethnic (47), effect (41), generous (40), differ (40), 0.01 (38), sociolog (35), present (35), public (34), activ (32), passiv (31), american (31), associ (30),
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Name: American Sociological Association Annual Meeting
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MLA Citation:

Nagayoshi, Kikuko. "Effects of Welfare Policies on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes: The Differences between Active Policies and Passive Policies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 07, 2009 <Not Available>. 2014-11-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p307250_index.html>

APA Citation:

Nagayoshi, K. , 2009-08-07 "Effects of Welfare Policies on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes: The Differences between Active Policies and Passive Policies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2014-11-29 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p307250_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Generous welfare policies are sometimes considered to be incompatible with influx of immigrants. This statement corroborates the group threat theory according to which social security is a privilege of the majority. However, it is also considered that generous welfare reduces anti-immigrant hostility by alleviating economic vulnerability of a country’s citizens. This study analyzes the relationship between welfare and anti-immigrant attitudes. It pays attention to the differences between active welfare policies and passive welfare policies, since they have different ideological bases and can have opposing effects on anti-immigrant attitudes; active policies are based on individualism, which may in turn weaken anti-immigrant attitudes while passive policies based on solidarity, which may in turn strengthen anti-immigrant attitudes. From the analysis of the cross-national data (World Value Surveys), the following results are found. In countries that allocate large budgets for active welfare policies, the citizens become more tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, those who are unemployed become more likely to accept the equal distribution of resources between themselves and immigrants. On the contrary, in countries that allocate large budgets for passive welfare policies, the citizens have more of an exclusionary attitude toward immigrants. Although both policies reduce vulnerability to a certain extent, passive welfare is likely to be perceived as a privilege exclusively for citizens. Therefore, generous passive welfare can lead to the perception of group threats, unlike active welfare policies.


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