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Korean Farmers’ Restoration of Masculinity: Gender, Class, and Nationality in Filipina-Korean International Marriage
Unformatted Document Text:  Korean Farmers’ Restoration of Masculinity: Gender, Class, and Nationality in Filipina-Korean International Marriage By Minjeong Kim Virginia Tech This paper examines South Korean farm bachelors’ motives to look for wives from Southeast Asian countries and argues that Korean farmers attempt to affirm their masculinity through international marriage. Intra-regional marriage migration in Asia has drastically increased since the 1990s and received much scholarly attention in destination countries such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea (Burgess 2004; Constable 2005; Ishii 1996; Jones and Shen 2008; Kim et al. 2006; Lee 2003; Morgan and Hoffman 2007; Piper and Roces 2003; Wang and Chang 2002). However, these studies primarily focus on women’s motives and experiences in families and communities or the state’s responses to the influx of marriage migrants; but, husbands of women marriage migrants have not received much attention except for those by a few authors (Satake 2004; Suzuki 2007). Based on the concept of the world gender order expounded by Connell (1998), this paper probes an association between the declining agricultural industry and the perceived decline of Korean farmers’ masculinity and argues how the gender hierarchy intersects with the global hierarchy in Korean men’s construction of masculinity. Both women and men are gendered and their gender identities are mutually reinforced. While conventional migration studies have looked at husband-wife relations in immigrant families or employer-employee relations for women labor migrants, this study examines husband-wife relations in which the husband is not a migrant. Non-migrant Korean husbands not 1

Authors: Kim, Minjeong.
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Korean Farmers’ Restoration of Masculinity: 
Gender, Class, and Nationality in Filipina-Korean International Marriage
By Minjeong Kim
Virginia Tech
This paper examines South Korean farm bachelors’ motives to look for wives from 
Southeast Asian countries and argues that Korean farmers attempt to affirm their masculinity 
through international marriage. Intra-regional marriage migration in Asia has drastically 
increased since the 1990s and received much scholarly attention in destination countries such as 
Japan, Taiwan and South Korea (Burgess 2004; Constable 2005; Ishii 1996; Jones and Shen 
2008; Kim et al. 2006; Lee 2003; Morgan and Hoffman 2007; Piper and Roces 2003; Wang and 
Chang 2002). However, these studies primarily focus on women’s motives and experiences in 
families and communities or the state’s responses to the influx of marriage migrants; but, 
husbands of women marriage migrants have not received much attention except for those by a 
few authors (Satake 2004; Suzuki 2007). Based on the concept of the world gender order 
expounded by Connell (1998), this paper probes an association between the declining 
agricultural industry and the perceived decline of Korean farmers’ masculinity and argues how 
the gender hierarchy intersects with the global hierarchy in Korean men’s construction of 
Both women and men are gendered and their gender identities are mutually reinforced. 
While conventional migration studies have looked at husband-wife relations in immigrant 
families or employer-employee relations for women labor migrants, this study examines 
husband-wife relations in which the husband is not a migrant. Non-migrant Korean husbands not 

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