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Korean Farmers’ Restoration of Masculinity: Gender, Class, and Nationality in Filipina-Korean International Marriage
Unformatted Document Text:  Doing gender also occurs in a global context. Connell (1998) argues that “international relations, international trade and global markets are inherently an arena of gender formation and gender politics” and defines the world gender order as “the structure of relationships that interconnect the gender regimes of institutions and the gender orders of local society on a world scale” (7). He contends that local gender order is changed by elements from other cultures. For example, western models of marriage based on romantic heterosexual love have globally circulated, and, rather than simply displacing indigenous models, they interacted with them in complicated ways. The gradual creation of a world gender order has engendered many local instabilities of gender, for instance, the disruption of men’s local dominance as women participate in the public realm and higher education. One response to such instabilities is for men whose power is challenged, but still dominant, to reaffirm local gender orthodoxies and hierarchies (Connell 1998). This logic also operates in the context of international marriage. Western men rationalize their search for a wife from Asia based on the stereotype of submissive Asian women, as opposed to feminist western women (Constable 2003). The global imagery of Asian women and the hegemonic masculinity of white men are circulated by the media and reproduced by marriage introduction agencies. The men (and women) often aligned themselves with the notions of a strictly gendered division of labor within the nuclear family and heterosexual marriages that are also espoused by government policies. Moreover, men’s reaffirmation of orthodox gender hierarchy is to reassert their masculinity in the world gender order. The globalization of gender also operates at a regional scale in accordance to the frequency of international cultural flows within a region. The gender order and local gender practices are changed and shaped by intense transnational interactions and 5

Authors: Kim, Minjeong.
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Doing gender also occurs in a global context. Connell (1998) argues that “international 
relations, international trade and global markets are inherently an arena of gender formation and 
gender politics” and defines the world gender order as “the structure of relationships that 
interconnect the gender regimes of institutions and the gender orders of local society on a world 
scale” (7). He contends that local gender order is changed by elements from other cultures. For 
example, western models of marriage based on romantic heterosexual love have globally 
circulated, and, rather than simply displacing indigenous models, they interacted with them in 
complicated ways. The gradual creation of a world gender order has engendered many local 
instabilities of gender, for instance, the disruption of men’s local dominance as women 
participate in the public realm and higher education. One response to such instabilities is for men 
whose power is challenged, but still dominant, to reaffirm local gender orthodoxies and 
hierarchies (Connell 1998).  
This logic also operates in the context of international marriage. Western men rationalize 
their search for a wife from Asia based on the stereotype of submissive Asian women, as 
opposed to feminist western women (Constable 2003). The global imagery of Asian women and 
the hegemonic masculinity of white men are circulated by the media and reproduced by marriage 
introduction agencies. The men (and women) often aligned themselves with the notions of a 
strictly gendered division of labor within the nuclear family and heterosexual marriages that are 
also espoused by government policies. 
Moreover, men’s reaffirmation of orthodox gender hierarchy is to reassert their 
masculinity in the world gender order. The globalization of gender also operates at a regional 
scale in accordance to the frequency of international cultural flows within a region. The gender 
order and local gender practices are changed and shaped by intense transnational interactions and 

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