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Evaluating "Humint": The Role of Foreign Agents in U.S. Security
Unformatted Document Text:  espionage cover, since one such spy caught in an act of espionage can cast doubt on the legitimate activities of all American scholars, reporters, and clergy abroad. Some international businesses recoil, too, at requests to provide cover. Why should they endanger their legitimate employees overseas, ask CEOs, by taking such risks? Even inside a U.S. embassy overseas, the Department of State resists requests from the CIA to provide diplomatic credentials for its operations officers. Why “contaminate” diplomacy with espionage? is a common State Department refrain. As a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) once complained in great frustration, the end result of these rejections is “a melting ice floe of cover” for America’s spies. iii According to recent figures, the United States has fielded about 1,100 CIA operations officers around the world, including some one hundred sixty or so NOCs and approximately one hundred DCOs. iv They are in the business of collecting strategic intelligence for the most part, with some limited attention to tactical (battlefield-related) information. The CIA is joined in the humint enterprise by elements of the U.S. armed services, whose human intelligence capabilities have been consolidated into a Defense Humint Services (DHS) that became officially operational in 1995. v The DHS is housed within the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), an umbrella defense intelligence analytic organization inside the organizational framework of the Department of Defense (DoD). The DHS fields a full complement of humint operations, from overt collection by men and women in uniform overseas to spy rings comprised of clandestine agents. About 75 percent of these activities consist of overt collection operations, with the rest relying on clandestine methods. The mix of DHS personnel include U.S. military officers who are overt intelligence collectors working at DoD; U.S. military officers stationed on American bases

Authors: Johnson, Loch.
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espionage cover, since one such spy caught in an act of espionage can cast doubt on the 
legitimate activities of all American scholars, reporters, and clergy abroad.  Some international 
businesses recoil, too, at requests to provide cover.  Why should they endanger their legitimate 
employees overseas, ask CEOs, by taking such risks?  
Even inside a U.S. embassy overseas, the Department of State resists requests from the 
CIA to provide diplomatic credentials for its operations officers.  Why “contaminate” diplomacy 
with espionage? is a common State Department refrain.  As a Director of Central Intelligence 
(DCI) once complained in great frustration, the end result of these rejections is “a melting ice 
floe of cover” for America’s spies.
According to recent figures, the United States has fielded about 1,100 CIA operations 
officers around the world, including some one hundred sixty or so NOCs and approximately one 
hundred DCOs.
  They are in the business of collecting strategic intelligence for the most part, 
with some limited attention to tactical (battlefield-related) information.  The CIA is joined in the 
humint enterprise by elements of the U.S. armed services, whose human intelligence capabilities 
have been consolidated into a Defense Humint Services (DHS) that became officially operational 
The DHS is housed within the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), an umbrella defense 
intelligence analytic organization inside the organizational framework of the Department of 
Defense (DoD).  The DHS fields a full complement of humint operations, from overt collection 
by men and women in uniform overseas to spy rings comprised of clandestine agents.  About 75 
percent of these activities consist of overt collection operations, with the rest relying on 
clandestine methods.  The mix of DHS personnel include U.S. military officers who are overt 
intelligence collectors working at DoD; U.S. military officers stationed on American bases 

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