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Implicit Closeness to Blacks, Support for Affirmative Action, Slavery Reparations, and Vote Intentions for Barack Obama in the 2008 Elections

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Abstract:

Reaction time studies conducted well before Obama’s election observed pro-Black implicit attitudes among Whites, Blacks, and respondents of other backgrounds. Data obtained in three studies is pooled (n=3,073) to assess overall effect sizes. Implicit closeness to Blacks (Aron et al. 1991; Craemer 2008) proved predictive of support for affirmative action, support for slavery reparations, and vote intentions for Barack Obama. In contrast, subliminal racial priming (a word association measure similar to Fazio et al. 1995, as well as Greenwald et al. 1998) failed to predict these political opinions.
Study 1 was based on a non-probability sample of 555 college students (2003/2004). Studies 2 and 3 were based on general population online panels obtained in 2007 (n=1,341) and 2008 (n=1,177). Non-probability studies were compared to representative surveys (CSRA 2007, n=1,200; and the 2008 NES); their similarity suggests no major threat from self-selection. Although population estimates cannot be derived, relationships between implicit and explicit attitudes can be evaluated. Implicit closeness to Blacks exerts a powerful effect on explicit racial attitude measures (average Cohen’s d= 0.44; p<.01). In contrast, IAT-like implicit word associations (assessed through subliminal priming) tend to display an anti-Black bias across all racial groups (average effect size d=-0.10; p<.01) and fail to predict explicit attitudes (d=0.04; n.s.). Together, the results are consistent with evidence in the literature of enduring anti-Black bias. However, they suggest that implicit closeness to Blacks may help to explain racial progress—most recently Barack Obama’s election—even in the light of enduring racial bias.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

black (200), implicit (190), studi (112), close (107), attitud (105), racial (99), measur (95), 1 (90), respond (85), 2 (79), prime (76), explicit (64), 2008 (62), bias (54), time (54), group (54), panel (53), white (51), 3 (51), sublimin (49), self (46),

Author's Keywords:

Implicit racial attitudes, self-other overlap, implicit closeness, implicit priming, IAT, Obama, Reparations, Affirmative Action
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Name: ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting
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http://ispp.org


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MLA Citation:

Craemer, Thomas. "Implicit Closeness to Blacks, Support for Affirmative Action, Slavery Reparations, and Vote Intentions for Barack Obama in the 2008 Elections" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Jul 14, 2009 <Not Available>. 2014-11-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p314494_index.html>

APA Citation:

Craemer, T. , 2009-07-14 "Implicit Closeness to Blacks, Support for Affirmative Action, Slavery Reparations, and Vote Intentions for Barack Obama in the 2008 Elections" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2014-11-29 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p314494_index.html

Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Reaction time studies conducted well before Obama’s election observed pro-Black implicit attitudes among Whites, Blacks, and respondents of other backgrounds. Data obtained in three studies is pooled (n=3,073) to assess overall effect sizes. Implicit closeness to Blacks (Aron et al. 1991; Craemer 2008) proved predictive of support for affirmative action, support for slavery reparations, and vote intentions for Barack Obama. In contrast, subliminal racial priming (a word association measure similar to Fazio et al. 1995, as well as Greenwald et al. 1998) failed to predict these political opinions.
Study 1 was based on a non-probability sample of 555 college students (2003/2004). Studies 2 and 3 were based on general population online panels obtained in 2007 (n=1,341) and 2008 (n=1,177). Non-probability studies were compared to representative surveys (CSRA 2007, n=1,200; and the 2008 NES); their similarity suggests no major threat from self-selection. Although population estimates cannot be derived, relationships between implicit and explicit attitudes can be evaluated. Implicit closeness to Blacks exerts a powerful effect on explicit racial attitude measures (average Cohen’s d= 0.44; p<.01). In contrast, IAT-like implicit word associations (assessed through subliminal priming) tend to display an anti-Black bias across all racial groups (average effect size d=-0.10; p<.01) and fail to predict explicit attitudes (d=0.04; n.s.). Together, the results are consistent with evidence in the literature of enduring anti-Black bias. However, they suggest that implicit closeness to Blacks may help to explain racial progress—most recently Barack Obama’s election—even in the light of enduring racial bias.


Similar Titles:
Implicit Bias, Implicit Closeness, and Explicit Support for Blacks. Representative Survey and Online-Reaction Time Study

AMPinp Racial Attitudes: Comparing Explicit and Implicit Measures of Racial Prejudice in the 2008 ANES Survey


 
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