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The Development of Theory and Practice of Knowledge Use and Exchange through Collaboration between STS and STP

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Abstract:

In policy studies there is a long history of discussions on how decision-makers and practitioners use knowledge of science, technology and society (e.g. Caplan et al. 1975; Whiteman 1982, 1985), whereas the social and political utility of STS has come to the fore since the Science Wars in the 1990s. A sound argument is that STS shall be useful not necessarily for the policy, unlike ‘serviceable STS’ (Webster 2007), but rather for the society by engaging a wide range of stakeholders and the public and positioning STS researchers themselves in the distribution (Woodhouse et al. 2002; Bijker 2003; Nowotny 2007; Wynne 2007). Prospective approaches for this might include a hermeneutic discourse analysis of the positioning of a STS researcher (Lynch & Cole 2005) and a middle-range theory (Wyatt & Balmer 2007).

While the term ‘use’ implies a unidirectional and positivistic knowledge transfer from the producers to the users for problem-solving, a recent study (Nutley, Walter & Davies 2007) articulates the concept of knowledge exchange whereby both parties interact. In this sense STS studies may be able to more contribute to the development of the concept and practice of knowledge exchange in terms of contingency, constructivity and reflexivity.

Activities for knowledge use and exchange are thus to be oriented to problem-solving as well as dynamic engagement between scientists, practitioners and decision-makers. These can be seen as advisory councils, workshops and networks engaging STS, STP and science communities in Japan. Whilst reviewing these activities, this paper focuses on two cases. One is the use of information and knowledge for the making of the Science and Technology Basic Plan (STBP) and the field for knowledge exchange. The other is technology assessment (TA) and TA-like activities in the past and present of Japan. For this purpose, the concept and practice of TA is re-examined with reference to strategic intelligence (Kuhlmann et al. 1999), policy analysis (Yoshizawa & Tahara 2008) and socio-technology (Yoshizawa 2009). The methodology is based on literature analysis and qualitative data analysis of written materials and interviews with a variety of stakeholders.
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Association:
Name: 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions
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http://www.4sonline.org


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370992_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Yoshizawa, Go. "The Development of Theory and Practice of Knowledge Use and Exchange through Collaboration between STS and STP" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, Oct 28, 2009 <Not Available>. 2014-11-28 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370992_index.html>

APA Citation:

Yoshizawa, G. , 2009-10-28 "The Development of Theory and Practice of Knowledge Use and Exchange through Collaboration between STS and STP" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA <Not Available>. 2014-11-28 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370992_index.html

Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In policy studies there is a long history of discussions on how decision-makers and practitioners use knowledge of science, technology and society (e.g. Caplan et al. 1975; Whiteman 1982, 1985), whereas the social and political utility of STS has come to the fore since the Science Wars in the 1990s. A sound argument is that STS shall be useful not necessarily for the policy, unlike ‘serviceable STS’ (Webster 2007), but rather for the society by engaging a wide range of stakeholders and the public and positioning STS researchers themselves in the distribution (Woodhouse et al. 2002; Bijker 2003; Nowotny 2007; Wynne 2007). Prospective approaches for this might include a hermeneutic discourse analysis of the positioning of a STS researcher (Lynch & Cole 2005) and a middle-range theory (Wyatt & Balmer 2007).

While the term ‘use’ implies a unidirectional and positivistic knowledge transfer from the producers to the users for problem-solving, a recent study (Nutley, Walter & Davies 2007) articulates the concept of knowledge exchange whereby both parties interact. In this sense STS studies may be able to more contribute to the development of the concept and practice of knowledge exchange in terms of contingency, constructivity and reflexivity.

Activities for knowledge use and exchange are thus to be oriented to problem-solving as well as dynamic engagement between scientists, practitioners and decision-makers. These can be seen as advisory councils, workshops and networks engaging STS, STP and science communities in Japan. Whilst reviewing these activities, this paper focuses on two cases. One is the use of information and knowledge for the making of the Science and Technology Basic Plan (STBP) and the field for knowledge exchange. The other is technology assessment (TA) and TA-like activities in the past and present of Japan. For this purpose, the concept and practice of TA is re-examined with reference to strategic intelligence (Kuhlmann et al. 1999), policy analysis (Yoshizawa & Tahara 2008) and socio-technology (Yoshizawa 2009). The methodology is based on literature analysis and qualitative data analysis of written materials and interviews with a variety of stakeholders.


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