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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  LITERATURE REVIEW The phenomenon of human trafficking 1 has created a contentious debate regarding the global sex industry and the proliferation of the recruitment and procurement of individuals for profit. Identifiable in current trends of human trafficking research and literature is the failure to decisively comprehend and analyze the human trafficking act as a whole, and, more specifically, to understand the human trafficking actors, from trafficked individual to trafficker. The tendency of human trafficking literature to extend the polarization of men and women and to create a male/female dichotomy is problematic because such hypotheses of human trafficking fail to identify significant aspects of the trafficking event. Subsequent to the creation of male/female polarities in human trafficking literature is a lack of research specifically focusing on the human trafficking act as an event in and of itself. Since the late nineteenth century, a belief has existed in the global community that human trafficking, specifically of women and children, has 1 Human trafficking, as defined by the United Nations (UNODC, 2006), is segregated into two components: 1) trafficking in persons; and 2) smuggling of migrants. Trafficking of persons is defined by the United Nations (2006) as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payment benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation includes, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs” (p. 07). Smuggling of migrants is defined by the United Nations (2006) as: the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a country which the person is not a national or a permanent resident (p. 06). 1

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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The phenomenon of human trafficking
 has created a contentious debate 
regarding the global sex industry and the proliferation of the recruitment and 
procurement of individuals for profit.  Identifiable in current trends of human 
trafficking research and literature is the failure to decisively comprehend and 
analyze the human trafficking act as a whole, and, more specifically, to 
understand the human trafficking actors, from trafficked individual to trafficker. 
The tendency of human trafficking literature to extend the polarization of men and 
women and to create a male/female dichotomy is problematic because such 
hypotheses of human trafficking fail to identify significant aspects of the 
trafficking event.  Subsequent to the creation of male/female polarities in human 
trafficking literature is a lack of research specifically focusing on the human 
trafficking act as an event in and of itself.
Since the late nineteenth century, a belief has existed in the global 
community that human trafficking, specifically of women and children, has 
  Human trafficking, as defined by the United Nations (UNODC, 2006), is segregated into two 
components: 1) trafficking in persons; and 2) smuggling of migrants.  Trafficking of persons is 
defined by the United Nations (2006) as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or 
receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of 
abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the 
giving or receiving of payment benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over 
another person, for the purpose of exploitation.  Exploitation includes, at a minimum, the 
exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or 
services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs” (p. 07).
   Smuggling of migrants is defined by the United Nations (2006) as: the procurement, in order to 
obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person 
into a country which the person is not a national or a permanent resident (p. 06).

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