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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  continued as an underground slave trade (Chuang, 1998; Doezema, 2002; Friman & Reich, 2007; Williams, 1999). How far underground the slave trade has gone is dependent upon how persistent the local government, including military, police and immigration forces, is in regards to combating human trafficking. In 1904, the first modern response to the new slave trade, the International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, was created (Friman & Reich, 2007). Followed by the 1910 Convention for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic, both the international agreement and the convention were a response to the perceived rise in human trafficking of innocent, white women and children (Doezema, 2002; Friman & Reich, 2007). Led by “moral entrepreneurs” (Andreas & Nadelmann, 2006) of the early 1900s like Josephine Butler 2 , groups such as the American Purity Alliance and the National Vigilance Association of London “sparked a ‘moral crusade’ to prohibit white slavery, either broadly or narrowly defined” (Friman & Reich, 2007, p. 5). The crusade suggested that white women and children were highly susceptible to organized trafficking networks and that responses from governments to criminalize both trafficking and prostitution were needed. However, during the era of the moral crusaders, 99% of trafficked women and children were non-white individuals from colonial areas (Friman & Reich, 2007). The crusade appears to have been directed at the criminalizing of 2 Josephine Butler, part of the rising feminist movement of the late nineteenth century, brought the White Slave Trade, or Traite des Blanches (an adaptation of the French term Traite des Noirs, which described the Negro slave trade), to the attention of the American public (Derks, 2000). Butler felt white women and children were susceptible to involuntary prostitution and pushed for the criminalization of prostitution in order to alleviate potential harms associated with prostitution (Friman & Reich, 2007). 2

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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continued as an underground slave trade (Chuang, 1998; Doezema, 2002; 
Friman & Reich, 2007; Williams, 1999).   How far underground the slave trade 
has gone is dependent upon how persistent the local government, including 
military, police and immigration forces, is in regards to combating human 
trafficking.  In 1904, the first modern response to the new slave trade, the 
International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, was 
created (Friman & Reich, 2007).  Followed by the 1910 Convention for the 
Suppression of White Slave Traffic, both the international agreement and the 
convention were a response to the perceived rise in human trafficking of 
innocent, white women and children (Doezema, 2002; Friman & Reich, 2007).  
Led by “moral entrepreneurs” (Andreas & Nadelmann, 2006) of the early 
1900s like Josephine Butler
, groups such as the American Purity Alliance and 
the National Vigilance Association of London “sparked a ‘moral crusade’ to 
prohibit white slavery, either broadly or narrowly defined” (Friman & Reich, 2007, 
p. 5).  The crusade suggested that white women and children were highly 
susceptible to organized trafficking networks and that responses from 
governments to criminalize both trafficking and prostitution were needed. 
However, during the era of the moral crusaders, 99% of trafficked women and 
children were non-white individuals from colonial areas (Friman & Reich, 2007).   
The crusade appears to have been directed at the criminalizing of 
2
 Josephine Butler, part of the rising feminist movement of the late nineteenth century, brought 
the White Slave Trade, or Traite des Blanches (an adaptation of the French term Traite des 
Noirs
, which described the Negro slave trade), to the attention of the American public (Derks, 
2000).  Butler felt white women and children were susceptible to involuntary prostitution and 
pushed for the criminalization of prostitution in order to alleviate potential harms associated with 
prostitution (Friman & Reich, 2007).
2


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