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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  immoralizing of prostitution has further fuelled the underground flesh trade is highly contested. Debate regarding the force/choice dichotomy also permeates the literature (Derks, 2000; Gulcur, 2002). There are two sides to the debate: (1) those who argue that force is not the issue regarding prostitution and trafficking because all acts of prostitution are exploitative and involuntary (e.g., Gulcur & Ilkkaracan, 2002; Jeffreys, 1997, 1999; Kelly, 2003); and (2) those who contend that individuals can freely participate in the global sex industry and are only subjected to trafficking when forced to work in sexual servitude (e.g., Busza, 2004; Murray, 1998; Wijers, 1998). Doezema (1998, 2000, 2001, 2003) fluctuates between the two arguments because she suggests that the forced/voluntary dichotomy of sex workers has become a way to deny sex workers their human rights. Doezema (1998, 1999) contends that the portion of the international community that seeks to abolish prostitution refuses to grant human rights to sex workers who choose prostitution as an occupation because sex workers who choose prostitution have chosen an immoral lifestyle. By further perpetuating the forced/voluntary aspect of prostitution, the human trafficking literature continues to create the opposing images of an innocent victim and a woman who got what she deserved (Doezema, 2003). If the human trafficking literature continues to focus only on the global sex trade, other categories of human trafficking, such as human smuggling and incidents involving men, may be overlooked. The primary argument in the literature supporting the notion that all forms of prostitution, whether coerced or not, are sexually exploitative is that female 12

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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immoralizing of prostitution has further fuelled the underground flesh trade is 
highly contested.  Debate regarding the force/choice dichotomy also permeates 
the literature (Derks, 2000; Gulcur, 2002).  
There are two sides to the debate: (1) those who argue that force is not 
the issue regarding prostitution and trafficking because all acts of prostitution are 
exploitative and involuntary (e.g., Gulcur & Ilkkaracan, 2002; Jeffreys, 1997, 
1999; Kelly, 2003); and (2) those who contend that individuals can freely 
participate in the global sex industry and are only subjected to trafficking when 
forced to work in sexual servitude (e.g., Busza, 2004; Murray, 1998; Wijers, 
1998).  Doezema (1998, 2000, 2001, 2003) fluctuates between the two 
arguments because she suggests that the forced/voluntary dichotomy of sex 
workers has become a way to deny sex workers their human rights.  Doezema 
(1998, 1999) contends that the portion of the international community that seeks 
to abolish prostitution refuses to grant human rights to sex workers who choose 
prostitution as an occupation because sex workers who choose prostitution have 
chosen an immoral lifestyle.  By further perpetuating the forced/voluntary aspect 
of prostitution, the human trafficking literature continues to create the opposing 
images of an innocent victim and a woman who got what she deserved 
(Doezema, 2003).  If the human trafficking literature continues to focus only on 
the global sex trade, other categories of human trafficking, such as human 
smuggling and incidents involving men, may be overlooked.
The primary argument in the literature supporting the notion that all forms 
of prostitution, whether coerced or not, are sexually exploitative is that female 
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