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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  poverty induces behaviour in individuals that otherwise might not occur if financial stability was conceivable outside of unfavourable actions. The notion that Shannon suggests is puzzling, because while her argument defends the actions of individuals who sell themselves for profit, Shannon provides no discussion of individuals facing the same socioeconomic issues who sell others. If there is a distinction between those who sell themselves and those who sell others, then the human trafficking literature should address the difference. It is also important to note that most literature regarding human trafficking seems to assume all traffickers are men (Malarek, 2006). There appears to be a profound gap in the literature that deals with women as traffickers, brothel owners and madams. If, as Shannon (1999) insists, desperation leads women to sell their bodies, what leads women to sell other women for sexual exploitation? Claims by Bertone (1999) and Jeffreys (1999) that a patriarchal society is the root of sexual exploitation do not consider that female offenders are involved in all stages of human trafficking. There is also a profound lack of human trafficking literature that discusses trafficked males. At times, the human trafficking literature appears to suggest a trafficked male is a smuggled migrant and a trafficked female is a victim. The suggestion that a male is often smuggled may not be inaccurate. The inaccuracy resides with the assumption that all females are trafficked rather than smuggled. Legislation dealing with trafficking can be inefficient because the focus is usually on prostitution rather than what Beare (1999) and others (Berman, 2003; Bertone, 1999; Friman & Reich, 2007; Hysi, 2007; Lindstrom, 2007; Mertus & 15

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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poverty induces behaviour in individuals that otherwise might not occur if 
financial stability was conceivable outside of unfavourable actions.  
The notion that Shannon suggests is puzzling, because while her 
argument defends the actions of individuals who sell themselves for profit, 
Shannon provides no discussion of individuals facing the same socioeconomic 
issues who sell others.  If there is a distinction between those who sell 
themselves and those who sell others, then the human trafficking literature 
should address the difference.  It is also important to note that most literature 
regarding human trafficking seems to assume all traffickers are men (Malarek, 
2006).  There appears to be a profound gap in the literature that deals with 
women as traffickers, brothel owners and madams. If, as Shannon (1999) insists, 
desperation leads women to sell their bodies, what leads women to sell other 
women for sexual exploitation?  Claims by Bertone (1999) and Jeffreys (1999) 
that a patriarchal society is the root of sexual exploitation do not consider that 
female offenders are involved in all stages of human trafficking.  There is also a 
profound lack of human trafficking literature that discusses trafficked males.  At 
times, the human trafficking literature appears to suggest a trafficked male is a 
smuggled migrant and a trafficked female is a victim.  The suggestion that a male 
is often smuggled may not be inaccurate.  The inaccuracy resides with the 
assumption that all females are trafficked rather than smuggled.
Legislation dealing with trafficking can be inefficient because the focus is 
usually on prostitution rather than what Beare (1999) and others (Berman, 2003; 
Bertone, 1999; Friman & Reich, 2007; Hysi, 2007; Lindstrom, 2007; Mertus & 

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