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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Bertone, 2007; Wijers, 2002) perceive the issue to be: socioeconomic problems and human rights injustices. What the human trafficking literature fails to address is the possibility that individuals agree to illegal migration with the assistance of smugglers in order to escape the problem inherent in their countries of origin. Bruckert & Parent (2004) interviewed an RCMP sergeant who stated that immigrants are willing to work longer hours for less pay in developed nations because the working conditions and living conditions are significantly worse in their home countries. Bruckert & Parent categorize these individuals as willing victims (p. 38). Legislation and international protocols that define trafficking as a national security, migration, or sex issue do not properly identify the main causes of human trafficking: poverty, inequality, and corruption (Beare, 1999; Shannon, 1999; Williams, 1999). As Friman & Reich (2007) suggest, human trafficking legislation should address the problem as a human security issue rather than a homeland security issue. If this were to occur, a better understanding could develop in order to define and identify the differences between human trafficking and human smuggling. Trafficked individuals differ from smuggled individuals with regards to choice. Smuggled individuals choose to illegally migrate and are aware of the end result of their migration in the destination country. Trafficked individuals may willingly travel either legally or illegally, but they are not aware that they have been trafficked for the purpose of exploitation. Homeland Security Versus Human Security Approach Recent publications regarding human trafficking can be distinguished in 16

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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Bertone, 2007; Wijers, 2002) perceive the issue to be: socioeconomic problems 
and human rights injustices.  What the human trafficking literature fails to 
address is the possibility that individuals agree to illegal migration with the 
assistance of smugglers in order to escape the problem inherent in their 
countries of origin.  Bruckert & Parent (2004) interviewed an RCMP sergeant 
who stated that immigrants are willing to work longer hours for less pay in 
developed nations because the working conditions and living conditions are 
significantly worse in their home countries.  Bruckert & Parent categorize these 
individuals as willing victims (p. 38).
Legislation and international protocols that define trafficking as a national 
security, migration, or sex issue do not properly identify the main causes of 
human trafficking: poverty, inequality, and corruption (Beare, 1999; Shannon, 
1999; Williams, 1999).  As Friman & Reich (2007) suggest, human trafficking 
legislation should address the problem as a human security issue rather than a 
homeland security issue.  If this were to occur, a better understanding could 
develop in order to define and identify the differences between human trafficking 
and human smuggling.  Trafficked individuals differ from smuggled individuals 
with regards to choice.  Smuggled individuals choose to illegally migrate and are 
aware of the end result of their migration in the destination country.  Trafficked 
individuals may willingly travel either legally or illegally, but they are not aware 
that they have been trafficked for the purpose of exploitation.
Homeland Security Versus Human Security Approach
Recent publications regarding human trafficking can be distinguished in 

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