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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  I began with the following search criteria: 1) human trafficking arrest [-drug –narcotic -cocaine] 3 ; 2) sex trafficking arrest [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 3) human smuggling arrest [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 4) human trafficking prosecution [- drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 5) sex trafficking prosecution [-drug –narcotic – cocaine]; and 6) human smuggling prosecution [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]. Utilization of the aforementioned search criteria was based on the decision to amass articles pertaining to the United Nations Convention against Organized Crime and the supporting Protocols regarding the prevention and suppression of human trafficking and human smuggling. 4 Although human smuggling is not categorized as a human trafficking offence 5 , my decision to include migrant smuggling in the search engine and coding process was based on the desire to assess the overlap between human trafficking and human smuggling. As well, my decision occurred because one particular focus of this study was to amass data that could expose issues pertaining to the definitional criteria of human trafficking; many of the issues pertaining to categorization of victims is based on intangible and subjective criteria. 3 “Human trafficking arrest –drug –narcotic –cocaine” is the actual search engine tagline for Google News Archive. 4 As mentioned in previous chapters, this study uses the United Nations definition of human trafficking and the smuggling of migrants. The definitions are as follows: “trafficking in persons”: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payment benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation; “smuggling of migrants”: the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a country or which the person is not a national or a permanent resident. (UNODC, 2006, p. 06-07) 5 Migrant smuggling, although part of the United Nations Convention and two supporting Protocols regarding trafficking, should not be considered a human trafficking offense if the individuals involved consented, without force, fraud or coercive measures, to receive assistance in illegally migrating to another country (UNODC, 2006). The relationship between the illegal migrant and the smuggler ends on arrival in the destination country and does not involve any exploitation of the smuggled individual. However, if the illegal migrant is exploited upon arrival in the destination country, they are considered a victim of human trafficking. 26

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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I began with the following search criteria: 1) human trafficking arrest [-drug 
–narcotic -cocaine]
; 2) sex trafficking arrest [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 3) human 
smuggling arrest [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 4) human trafficking prosecution [-
drug –narcotic –cocaine]; 5) sex trafficking prosecution [-drug –narcotic –
cocaine]; and 6) human smuggling prosecution [-drug –narcotic –cocaine]. 
Utilization of the aforementioned search criteria was based on the decision to 
amass articles pertaining to the United Nations Convention against Organized 
Crime and the supporting Protocols regarding the prevention and suppression of 
human trafficking and human smuggling.
Although human smuggling is not 
categorized as a human trafficking offence
, my decision to include migrant 
smuggling in the search engine and coding process was based on the desire to 
assess the overlap between human trafficking and human smuggling.  As well, 
my decision occurred because one particular focus of this study was to amass 
data that could expose issues pertaining to the definitional criteria of human 
trafficking; many of the issues pertaining to categorization of victims is based on 
intangible and subjective criteria.
3
  “Human trafficking arrest –drug –narcotic –cocaine” is the actual search engine tagline for 
Google News Archive.  
4
  As mentioned in previous chapters, this study uses the United Nations definition of human 
trafficking and the smuggling of migrants.  The definitions are as follows: “trafficking in 
persons”: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means 
of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of 
the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payment 
benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose 
of exploitation; “smuggling of migrants”: the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or 
indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a country or 
which the person is not a national or a permanent resident. (UNODC, 2006, p. 06-07)
5
  Migrant smuggling, although part of the United Nations Convention and two supporting 
Protocols regarding trafficking, should not be considered a human trafficking offense if the 
individuals involved consented, without force, fraud or coercive measures, to receive 
assistance in illegally migrating to another country (UNODC, 2006).  The relationship between 
the illegal migrant and the smuggler ends on arrival in the destination country and does not 
involve any exploitation of the smuggled individual.  However, if the illegal migrant is exploited 
upon arrival in the destination country, they are considered a victim of human trafficking.  
26


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