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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  o Male—unknown; o Males—variety of ages and; o Males and Females—variety of ages, which was used when groups of two or more males and females were trafficked, with or without children, whether or not their ages were identified in an article. I attempted to assess both the gender and age of the trafficked individuals in a comprehensive and concrete manner. The purpose of this coding method was to provide a stronger breakdown of the varying gender and ages of trafficked individuals than the frequently used concept of “men, women and children”. As mentioned previously, in order to assess those cases of multiple trafficked individuals, attribute values such as “Children —Variety of ages” and “Males and Females—Variety of ages” were created. Formation of attribute values that allowed for multiple ages and genders, grouped by commonalities, allowed for a more thorough analysis than leaving cases of multiples as “Unassigned”; however, it must be noted that designating a case under a particular attribute value does not indicate that only one individual was trafficked. Rather, if two females, both between the ages of 18 and 25, were trafficked, the attribute value was coded as “Female—Adult 18 to 25”; this category was rarely invoked. • Gender of trafficker was divided into three valuations: male, female, and male & female. Although singular terms were used (e.g. - male), more than one male could be involved. This is true for the female and male & female valuations. The researcher noted that cases that involved female traffickers tended to specifically identify that a female offender was involved; however, cases where the article did not clearly identify gender, which the researcher assessed either through specific use of the term “male” or “female” or specific use of pronouns “he, she, him, her,” were left unassigned. In cases where the name of the offender was clearly male or female, the researcher coded the gender 35

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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o Male—unknown; 
o Males—variety of ages and; 
o Males and Females—variety of ages, which was used when 
groups of two or more males and females were trafficked, with 
or without children, whether or not their ages were identified in 
an article.
I attempted to assess both the gender and age of the trafficked individuals 
in a comprehensive and concrete manner.  The purpose of this coding 
method was to provide a stronger breakdown of the varying gender and 
ages of trafficked individuals than the frequently used concept of “men, 
women and children”.   As mentioned previously, in order to assess those 
cases of multiple trafficked individuals, attribute values such as “Children
—Variety of ages” and “Males and Females—Variety of ages” were 
created.  Formation of attribute values that allowed for multiple ages and 
genders, grouped by commonalities, allowed for a more thorough analysis 
than leaving cases of multiples as “Unassigned”; however, it must be 
noted that designating a case under a particular attribute value does not 
indicate that only one individual was trafficked.  Rather, if two females, 
both between the ages of 18 and 25, were trafficked, the attribute value 
was coded as “Female—Adult 18 to 25”; this category was rarely invoked. 
Gender of trafficker was divided into three valuations: male, female, 
and male & female.  Although singular terms were used (e.g. - male), 
more than one male could be involved.  This is true for the female and 
male & female valuations.  The researcher noted that cases that 
involved female traffickers tended to specifically identify that a female 
offender was involved; however, cases where the article did not clearly 
identify gender, which the researcher assessed either through specific 
use of the term “male” or “female” or specific use of pronouns “he, she, 
him, her,” were left unassigned.  In cases where the name of the 
offender was clearly male or female, the researcher coded the gender 

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