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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  ensuing exploitation; Trafficker—non-force, fraud or coercion, which was used in cases where a trafficked person was duped, lured, coerced or deceived into either the illegal migration or exploitation after arrival at the destination country. • Level of trafficker cooperation with others was divided into the following valuations in order to assess the level of organization of the trafficking offence: Unassigned, which was used if the level of cooperation with others was unclear; Trafficker acted as an individual; Trafficker acted with family members; Trafficked acted with one other individual; Trafficker involved in organized crime, which was used only when the article identified an individual’s ties to a specific organized crime ring 24 ; Trafficker involved in smuggling/trafficking organization, which was used when the article specifically identified the trafficker’s involvement in a smuggling or trafficking ring, but not an organized crime ring. • Method of transportation of trafficked individual was divided into the following: Unassigned, which was used if the article offered no indication of method of transportation of the trafficked individual; Air— plane, etc.; Automobile—truck, car, trailer, train, etc.; Sea vessel— boat, shipping container, etc.; On foot. • Offender employment/ community position was assessed using the following valuations: Unassigned; Civilian, which includes landed immigrants; Government—aid worker; Government—military; Government—police; Government—politician; Illegal immigrant. In cases where a trafficker was arrested in a country different from their country of residence but there was no indication that the trafficker had illegally migrated to the country of arrest and was merely present in the 24 The level of organization of human trafficking is currently under debate in academic circles, with the debate focusing on whether human traffickers are engaging in organized crime or whether human traffickers are engaging in a crime that is organized. For the purpose of this study, the researcher coded for organized crime only if it was evident in the article that the individual involved was involved in a specific organized crime ring. As well, if it was evident that the trafficker was only involved in the smuggling or trafficking of humans, the researcher coded the trafficker as being involved in a smuggling/trafficking ring. This dichotomy will be addressed further in the Discussion chapter. 37

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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ensuing exploitation; Trafficker—non-force, fraud or coercion, which 
was used in cases where a trafficked person was duped, lured, 
coerced or deceived into either the illegal migration or exploitation after 
arrival at the destination country.
Level of trafficker cooperation with others was divided into the following 
valuations in order to assess the level of organization of the trafficking 
offence: Unassigned, which was used if the level of cooperation with 
others was unclear; Trafficker acted as an individual; Trafficker acted 
with family members; Trafficked acted with one other individual; 
Trafficker involved in organized crime, which was used only when the 
article identified an individual’s ties to a specific organized crime ring
Trafficker involved in smuggling/trafficking organization, which was 
used when the article specifically identified the trafficker’s involvement 
in a smuggling or trafficking ring, but not an organized crime ring.
Method of transportation of trafficked individual was divided into the 
following: Unassigned, which was used if the article offered no 
indication of method of transportation of the trafficked individual; Air—
plane, etc.; Automobile—truck, car, trailer, train, etc.; Sea vessel—
boat, shipping container, etc.; On foot.
Offender employment/ community position was assessed using the 
following valuations: Unassigned; Civilian, which includes landed 
immigrants; Government—aid worker; Government—military; 
Government—police; Government—politician; Illegal immigrant.  In 
cases where a trafficker was arrested in a country different from their 
country of residence but there was no indication that the trafficker had 
illegally migrated to the country of arrest and was merely present in the 
  The level of organization of human trafficking is currently under debate in academic circles, 
with the debate focusing on whether human traffickers are engaging in organized crime or 
whether human traffickers are engaging in a crime that is organized.  For the purpose of this 
study, the researcher coded for organized crime only if it was evident in the article that the 
individual involved was involved in a specific organized crime ring.  As well, if it was evident 
that the trafficker was only involved in the smuggling or trafficking of humans, the researcher 
coded the trafficker as being involved in a smuggling/trafficking ring.  This dichotomy will be 
addressed further in the Discussion chapter.

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