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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  • The nucleus of sexual exploitation literature focuses on a male/female dichotomy and fails to represent or analyze the female offender involved in human trafficking; • Legislation seeking to halt human trafficking does not target the offenders who are engaging in exploitation; • As a consequence of the legislation, appropriate law enforcement is not utilized in order to identify and apprehend the offenders perpetrating sexually exploitative trafficking offences • Failure of law-enforcement to actively track and identify cases of exploitation; in many instances, as is the case in the United States, immigration officials are the individuals often responsible for tracking human trafficking cases • Defining the subjective concept of exploitation with objective laws may lead to an over-encompassing definition that fails to identify specific components of human trafficking acts Overrepresentation of sexual exploitation in the literature The focus on the male/female dichotomy in the literature might have led to over-representations of sexual exploitation and forced human trafficking into a debate regarding prostitution and the subjugation of women by men for male sexual satisfaction. While forced prostitution is a significant issue, especially when involving minors, the human trafficking literature may be misleading in its attempts to understand the trafficking act. Human trafficking may not even be the issue: the results of this study suggest that human smuggling is receiving attention as human trafficking and may be inflating arrest rate statistics. Human smuggling is, as reported in this study, frequently categorized as human trafficking. 63

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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The nucleus of sexual exploitation literature focuses on a male/female 
dichotomy and fails to represent or analyze the female offender 
involved in human trafficking;
Legislation seeking to halt human trafficking does not target the 
offenders who are engaging in exploitation;
As a consequence of the legislation, appropriate law enforcement is 
not utilized in order to identify and apprehend the offenders 
perpetrating sexually exploitative trafficking offences
Failure of law-enforcement to actively track and identify cases of 
exploitation; in many instances, as is the case in the United States, 
immigration officials are the individuals often responsible for tracking 
human trafficking cases
Defining the subjective concept of exploitation with objective laws may 
lead to an over-encompassing definition that fails to identify specific 
components of human trafficking acts
Overrepresentation of sexual exploitation in the literature
The focus on the male/female dichotomy in the literature might have led to 
over-representations of sexual exploitation and forced human trafficking into a 
debate regarding prostitution and the subjugation of women by men for male 
sexual satisfaction.  While forced prostitution is a significant issue, especially 
when involving minors, the human trafficking literature may be misleading in its 
attempts to understand the trafficking act.  Human trafficking may not even be 
the issue: the results of this study suggest that human smuggling is receiving 
attention as human trafficking and may be inflating arrest rate statistics.  Human 
smuggling is, as reported in this study, frequently categorized as human 

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